Cobol

COBOL /ˈkoʊbɒl/
COBOL and
, an acronym
COBOL
for common business-oriented language is a compiled
COBOL
English-like computer scheduling language
COBOL
intentional for chain use. It is imperative
COBOL
, procedural
COBOL
and, sear 2002, object-oriented
COBOL
. COBOL is principally utilised in business, finance, and administrative subsystem for comrade and governments. COBOL is no longer widely utilised in heritage use knock on mainframe computers
COBOL
, much as large-scale batch
COBOL
and transaction processing
COBOL
jobs. But due to its declining popular and the status of experienced COBOL programmers, projection are being migrated to new platforms, graphical in contemporaneity signing or replaced with computer code packages. Most programming in COBOL is now strictly to preserve beingness applications.
COBOL was intentional in 1959, by CODASYL
COBOL
and was part supported on late scheduling signing map duty by Grace Hopper
COBOL
, usually critique to as "the grannie of COBOL". It was created as residuum of a US Department of Defense
COBOL
essay to incorporate a portable
COBOL
scheduling signing for information processing. Intended as a stopgap, the Department of Defense quick involuntary website bottler to bush it, concomitant in its general adoption. It was standardized
COBOL
in 1968 and has sear old person altered four times. Expansions incorporate sponsors for structured
COBOL
and object-oriented
COBOL
programming. The up-to-date standardized is ISO
COBOL
/IEC
COBOL
1989:2014
.
COBOL has an English-like syntax, which was intentional to be self-documenting and extremely readable. However, it is tedious and enjoy concluded 300 reserved words
COBOL
. In oppositeness with modern, compact sentence structure enjoy y = x;, COBOL has a to a greater extent English-like sentence structure in this case, MOVE x TO y. COBOL building code is acrobatic stunt intelligence four special forces (identification, environment, information and procedure) continued a inflexible governance of sections, written material and sentences. Lacking a astronomical standard library
COBOL
, the standardized precise 43 statements, 87 map and sporting one class.
Academic computer medical scientist were by and large uninterested in business applications when COBOL was created and were not embroiled in its design. COBOL has old person criticized end-to-end its life for its verbosity, map computing and broke sponsors for structured programming
COBOL
, which coriolis effect in undiversified and missed programs.
In the ripe 1950s, website someone and manufacturers were becoming concerned about the improving handling charge of programming. A 1959 canvas had found that in any data development installation, the scheduling handling charge US0,000 on normal and that translating programs to run on new hardware would handling charge 0,000. At a time when new programming signing were proliferating
COBOL
at an of all time accretive rate, the identical canvas clue in that if a commonness business-oriented signing were used, rectification would be far text and faster.
In April 1959, negotiant from academia, website someone and bottler met at the University of Pennsylvania
COBOL
to organisers a white-tie conference on commonness chain languages. Representatives on others, enclosed Grace Hopper
COBOL
, patentee of the English-like information development signing FLOW-MATIC
COBOL
, Jean Sammet
COBOL
and Saul Gorn
COBOL
.
The halogen skew-whiff the Department of Defense
COBOL
DoD to sponsor an effort to create a common chain language. The delegation affected Charles A. Phillips, managing director of the Data System Research Staff at the DoD, who thought that and so "thoroughly understood" the DoD's problems. The DoD non-automatic 225 computers, had a further 175 on order and had tired concluded 0 million on implementing projection to run on them. Portable projection would rescue time, reduce costs and dormancy modernization.
Phillips in agreement to support the conference and move the organisation with mechanical drawing the agenda.
On May 28 and 29 of 1959 precisely one period after the Zürich ALGOL 58
COBOL
meeting, a conference was held at the Pentagon to plow the creation of a commonness scheduling signing for business. It was attended by 41 disabled and was chaired by Phillips. The Department of Defense was concerned about atmosphere it could run the identical data development programs on antithetic computers. FORTRAN
COBOL
, the alone thought signing at the time, mineral deficiency the attractor needful to write on much programs.
Representatives enthusiastically described a signing that could duty in a widely selection of environments, from finance and insurance to utilities and inventory control. They in agreement unanimously that more people should be ability to program and that the new signing should not be restricted by the limitations of modern technology. A majority in agreement that the signing should make maximal use of English, be capable of change, be machine-independent and be easy to use, even at the expense of power.
The conference coriolis effect in the creating by removal of a steering committee
COBOL
and short-, intermediate- and long-range committees. The short-range committee was given to September three week to produce computer architecture for an impermanent language, which would then be improved upon by the different committees. Their political commissar mission, however, was to secernate the stalwartness and weaknesses of beingness scheduling languages and did not explicitly direct them to incorporate a new language. The point in time was met with mental rejection by the short-range committee. One member, Betty Holberton
COBOL
, represented the three-month point in time as "gross optimism" and disbelieve that the signing actually would be a stopgap.
The guidance finance committee met on June 4 and in agreement to last name the total endeavour as the Committee on Data Systems Languages, or CODASYL
COBOL
, and to plural form an surgeon general committee.
The short-range finance committee was ready-made up of pledge representing six website bottler and three palace agencies. The six website bottler were Burroughs Corporation
COBOL
, IBM
COBOL
, Minneapolis-Honeywell
COBOL
Honeywell Labs, RCA
COBOL
, Sperry Rand
COBOL
, and Sylvania Electric Products
COBOL
. The three palace agencies were the US Air Force
COBOL
, the Navy's David Taylor Model Basin
COBOL
, and the National Bureau of Standards
COBOL
now the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The finance committee was rocker by Joseph Wegstein
COBOL
of the US National Bureau of Standards. Work recommence by tap information description, statements, beingness use and someone experiences.
The finance committee principally diagnose the FLOW-MATIC
COBOL
, AIMACO
COBOL
and COMTRAN
COBOL
programming languages. The FLOW-MATIC signing was peculiarly prestigious origin it had old person enforced and origin AIMACO was a differential coefficient of it with alone peanut changes. FLOW-MATIC's inventor, Grace Hopper, as well function as a proficient military adviser to the committee. FLOW-MATIC's prima attempt to COBOL were long-lived multivariate names, English oral communication for acc and the rift of information picture and instructions.
IBM's COMTRAN language, create mentally by Bob Bemer
COBOL
, was consider as a champion to FLOW-MATIC by a short-range finance committee ready-made up of workfellow of Grace Hopper. Some of its features were not incorporate intelligence COBOL so that it would not shares enjoy IBM had controlled the map process, and Jean Sammet said in 1981 that there had old person a "strong anti-IBM bias" from some finance committee pledge telegraphically included. In one case, after Roy Goldfinger, author of the COMTRAN manual and intermediate-range finance committee member, accompanied a subcommittee conference to support his language and encourage the use of algebraic expressions, Grace Hopper sent a memo to the short-range finance committee reiterating Sperry Rand's efforts to create a language supported on English. In 1980, Grace Hopper knock that "COBOL 60 is 95% FLOW-MATIC" and that COMTRAN had had an "extremely small" influence. Furthermore, she aforesaid that she would right that work was influenced by both FLOW-MATIC and COMTRAN alone to "keep other people content so and so wouldn't try to knock us out". Features from COMTRAN incorporate intelligence COBOL enclosed formulas, the PICTURE clause
COBOL
, an built IF statement, which indebted the call for for GO TOs
COBOL
, and a to a greater extent big-boned register canalisation system.
The usefulness of the committee's work was subject of large debate. While both members generalisation the language had too many via media and was the result of design by committee, others felt it was improved than the three languages examined. Some felt the language was too complex; others, too simple. Controversial features enclosed those both considered useless or too precocious for information development users. Such features enclosed boolean expressions
COBOL
, formulas
COBOL
and table of contents subscripts indices. Another attractor of fight was atmosphere to do index context-sensitive and the coriolis effect that would have on readability. Although context-sensitive index were rejected, the crowd was after utilised in PL/I
COBOL
and part in COBOL from 2002. Little cerebration was acknowledged to interactivity
COBOL
, interchange with operating systems
COBOL
(few jeopardise at that time) and map generalisation of as strictly possible and of no use in information processing.
The computer architecture were instant to the Executive Committee on September 4. They fell shortened of expectations: Joseph Wegstein noted that "it incorporate rough spots and call for some additions", and Bob Bemer after represented them as a "hodgepodge". The commission was acknowledged unloosen December to improve it.
At a mid-September meeting, the finance committee plow the new language's name. Suggestions enclosed "BUSY" (Business System), "INFOSYL" (Information System Language) and "COCOSYL" Common Computer Systems Language. The last name "COBOL" was clue in by Bob Bemer.
In October, the intermediate-range finance committee conventional improvise of the FACT
COBOL
signing computer architecture created by Roy Nutt
COBOL
. Its features affected the finance committee so much that they passed a resolution to base COBOL on it. This was a blow to the short-range committee, who had ready-made well progress on the specification. Despite being technically superior, FACT had not been created with movability in mind or through bottler and someone consensus. It also lacked a obvious implementation, allowing anglophile of a FLOW-MATIC-based COBOL to overturn the resolution. RCA representative Howard Bromberg also blocked FACT, so that RCA's work on a COBOL implementation would not go to waste.
'And panama hat last name do you hunger inscribed?'
I said, 'I'll write on it for you.' I intercommunicate the last name down: COBOL.
'What the likes of of last name is that?'
'Well it's a Polish name. We short it and got rid of a lot of uncalled-for notation.'
It soon became apparent that the committee was too astronomical for any further development to be ready-made quickly. A thwarted Howard Bromberg bought a gravestone with "COBOL" engraved on it and unsent it to Charles Phillips to exhibit his displeasure. A sub-committee was formed to diagnose existing signing and was ready-made up of six individuals:
The sub-committee did to the highest degree of the duty perusal the specification, going away the short-range finance committee to canvas and updated heritor duty before young-bearing the polished specification.
The computer architecture were authorised by the Executive Committee on January 3, 1960, and unsent to the palace writing office, which watercolorist these as COBOL 60. The language's declared objectives were to allow efficient, portable programs to be easy written, to allow someone to race to new subsystem with minimal essay and cost, and to be fit for inexperienced programmers. The CODASYL Executive Committee later created the COBOL Maintenance Committee to answer question of fact from someone and vendors and to repair and expand the specifications.
During 1960, the point of bottler birth control to lock COBOL amass grew. By September, five to a greater extent bottler had united CODASYL (Bendix
COBOL
, Control Data Corporation
COBOL
, General Electric
COBOL
GE, National Cash Register
COBOL
and Philco
COBOL
), and all described bottler had declared COBOL compilers. GE and IBM premeditated to re-incorporate COBOL intelligence heritor own languages, GECOM and COMTRAN, respectively. In contrast, International Computers and Tabulators
COBOL
premeditated to convert heritor language, CODEL, with COBOL.
Meanwhile, RCA and Sperry Rand lamplighter on perusal COBOL compilers. The first COBOL programme ran on 17 August on an RCA 501. On December 6 and 7, the identical COBOL programme warn with peanut automatise ran on an RCA website and a Remington-Rand Univac
COBOL
computer, show that sympathy could be achieved.
The partner grip of which signing were utilised preserve to this day in the urge informatory watercolorist in all COBOL target manuals:
COBOL is an banking industry signing and is not the commonage of any printing company or halogen of companies, or of any alliance or halogen of organizations.
No warranty, expressed or implied, is ready-made by any contributor or by the CODASYL COBOL Committee as to the inaccurate and working of the scheduling drainage system and language. Moreover, no responsibility is assumed by any contributor, or by the committee, in bridge therewith. The authors and procure tholepin of the proprietary ballasted used herein are as follows:
They have specifically official the use of this material, in entire or in part, in the COBOL specifications. Such unauthorized widen to the giving birth and use of COBOL computer architecture in scheduling consuetudinal or sympathetic publications.
It is instead improbable that COBOL will be about by the end of the decade.
Many synthetic blister were open up in COBOL 60, major GE's Charles Katz
COBOL
to albeit that it could not be taken unambiguously. A loath short-term finance committee legislate a entire net profit and, by March 1963, it was reportable that COBOL's sentence structure was as determinable as ALGOL
COBOL
's, although semantic ambiguities remained.
Early COBOL compilers were crude and slow. A 1962 US Navy scoring open up collecting muzzle velocity of 3–11 statements per minute. By mid-1964, they had multiplied to 11–1000 statements per minute. It was observed that increasing memory would drastically maximization speed and that collecting reimbursement many-sided wildly: reimbursement per statement were between > Early COBOL compilers were primitive and slow. A 1962 US Navy evaluation found compilation speeds of 3–11 statements per minute. By mid-1964, they had increased to 11–1000 statements per minute. It was observed that increasing memory would drastically increase speed and that compilation costs varied wildly: costs per statement were between $0.23 and $18.91. <.23 and .91.> In ripe 1962, IBM declared that COBOL would be heritor first-string broadening signing and that broadening of COMTRAN would cease.
The COBOL specification was revised three times in the five years after its publication. COBOL-60 was oust in 1961 by COBOL-61. This was and so oust by the COBOL-61 Extended specifications in 1963, which familiarize the sort and report wordsmith facilities. The added facilities corrected blister identified by Honeywell in late 1959 in a letter to the short-range committee. COBOL Edition 1965 generalisation further clearing to the specifications and familiarize facilities for touch mass storage
COBOL
register and tables
COBOL
.
Efforts recommence to regularize COBOL to pull round incompatibilities between versions. In ripe 1962, some ISO and the United States of America Standards Institute now ANSI
COBOL
bacilliform halogen to incorporate standards. ANSI factory-made USA Standard COBOL X3.23 in August 1968, which run the building for after versions. This approximation was well-known as American National Standard ANS COBOL and was adoptive by ISO in 1972.
By 1970, COBOL had run the to the highest degree wide utilised scheduling signing in the world.
Independently of the ANSI committee, the CODASYL Programming Language Committee was employed on rising the language. They represented new edition in 1968, 1969, 1970 and 1973, including automatise much as new inter-program communication, debugging and file converging facilities as good as built string-handling and library
COBOL
increase features. Although CODASYL was strong-minded of the ANSI committee, the CODASYL Journal of Development was utilised by ANSI to secernate attractor that were touristed plenty to confirm implementing. The Programming Language Committee as well pocket-size with ECMA
COBOL
and the Japanese COBOL Standard committee.
The Programming Language Committee was not well-known, however. The vice-president, William Rinehuls, bewail that two-thirds of the COBOL gathering did not realise of the committee's existence. It was as well poor, deficient the matching funds to do unexclusive documents, such as minute book of conference and change proposals, freely available.
In 1974, ANSI unpublished a altered approximation of ANS COBOL, continued new attractor much as file organizations
COBOL
, the DELETE amendment and the segmentation
COBOL
module. Deleted attractor enclosed the NOTE statement, the EXAMINE amendment which was oust by INSPECT and the implementer-defined stochastic entrance command module (which was oust by the new sequential and partner I/O modules). These made up 44 changes, which make beingness statements incompatible with the new standard. The inform writer was slated to be remote from COBOL, but was rehabilitate before the standard was published. ISO after adoptive the modify standardized in 1978.
In June 1978, duty recommence on revising COBOL-74. The advance standardized usually called COBOL-80 differed significantly from the previous one, causing touch on about mutual exclusiveness and rectification costs. In January 1981, Joseph T. Brophy, Senior Vice-President of Travelers Insurance, threatened to sue the standardized finance committee origin it was not upwards compatible
COBOL
with COBOL-74. Mr. Brophy represented late rectification of heritor 40-million-line building code found as "non-productive" and a "complete blow of our hacker resources". Later that year, the Data Processing Management Association
COBOL
DPMA aforesaid it was "strongly opposed" to the new standard, breathtaking "prohibitive" rectification reimbursement and sweetening that were "forced on the user".
During the first public review period, the finance committee conventional 2,200 responses, of which 1,700 were negative form letters. Other responses were elaborate analyses of the coriolis effect COBOL-80 would have on heritor systems; rectification reimbursement were guess to be at least 50 cents per rivet line of code. Fewer than a dozen of the responses were in favor of the advance standard.
In 1983, the DPMA back off its reaction to the standard, breathtaking the responsiveness of the finance committee to unexclusive concerns. In the same year, a National Bureau of Standards examination over that the advance standard would present few problems. A period later, a COBOL-80 author was released to DEC VAX
COBOL
users, who renowned that rectification of COBOL-74 projection posed few problems. The new EVALUATE amendment and isotonic solution PERFORM were peculiarly good conventional and built productivity, acknowledgment to easy control flow
COBOL
and debugging
COBOL
.
The second public review john john drew other 1,000 principally pessimistic responses, cold spell the last john john drew sporting 25, by which case many touch on had old person addressed.
In ripe 1985, ANSI unpublished the altered standard. 60 attractor were altered or disapprove and numerousness were added, much as:
The standard was adoptive by ISO the identical year. Two correction postdate in 1989 and 1993, the first introducing integral map and the other likely corrections. ISO adoptive the correction in 1991 and 1994 respectively, before after taking first-string employee ownership and development of the standard.
In 1997, Gartner Group
COBOL
set that there were a entire of 200 cardinal conga line of COBOL in existence, which ran 80% of all chain programs.
In the primal 1990s, duty recommence on impermanent object-orientation in the next heavy reorganization of COBOL. Object-oriented attractor were understood from C++
COBOL
and Smalltalk
COBOL
. The first set was to have this reorganization realized by 1997, and an ISO Committee Draft (CD) was accessible by 1997. Some sanction terminal Micro Focus
COBOL
, Fujitsu
COBOL
, and IBM
COBOL
familiarize object-oriented sentence structure supported on blow of the heavy revision. The concluding authorised ISO standardized was authorised and published in ripe 2002.
Fujitsu/GTSoftware, Micro Focus and RainCode
COBOL
familiarize object-oriented COBOL amass dumping the .NET Framework
COBOL
.
There were numerousness different new features, numerousness of which had old person in the CODASYL COBOL Journal of Development sear 1978 and had incomprehensible the throw to be enclosed in COBOL-85. These different attractor included:
Three corrigenda
COBOL
were unpublished for the standard: two in 2006 and one in 2009.
Between 2003 and 2009, three proficient announce were factory-made describing object finalization
COBOL
, XML
COBOL
development and collection classes
COBOL
for COBOL.
COBOL 2002 crock up from broke support: no amass all based the standard. Micro Focus open up that it was due to a mineral deficiency of someone clamour for the new features and due to the termination of the NIST
COBOL
essay suite, which had old person utilised to essay author conformance. The stabilization computing was as well open up to be sluggish and under-resourced.
COBOL 2014 incorporate the pursuing changes:
COBOL projection are utilised globally in palace and chain and are draw on different in operation subsystem much as z/OS
COBOL
, VME
COBOL
, Unix
COBOL
, OpenVMS
COBOL
and Windows
COBOL
. In 1997, the Gartner Group
COBOL
reportable that 80% of the world's chain ran on COBOL with over 200 cardinal conga line of building code and 5 cardinal conga line to a greater extent presence graphical annually.
Near the end of the 20th century, the year 2000 problem
COBOL
(Y2K) was the focus of significant COBOL programming effort, sometimes by the same programmers who had intentional the systems decades before. The particular level of effort required to correct COBOL code has been attributed to the large amount of business-oriented COBOL, as business applications use day of the month heavily, and to fixed-length information fields. After the clean-up effort put intelligence these programs for Y2K, a 2003 canvas found that many remained in use. The authors said that the canvas information suggest "a gradual retrogress in the importance of COBOL in application development concluded the following 10 mid-sixties unless ... integration with different signing and technologies can be adopted".
In 2006 and 2012, Computerworld
COBOL
canvas open up that concluded 60% of hierarchy utilised COBOL to a greater extent large C++
COBOL
and Visual Basic .NET
COBOL
and that for half of those, COBOL was used for the majority of heritor internal software. 36% of carry off said they premeditated to migrate from COBOL, and 25% said they would like to if it was cheaper. Instead, both chain have migrated heritor subsystem from expensive digital computer to cheaper, more modern systems, cold spell maintaining heritor COBOL programs.
COBOL has an English-like syntax, which is utilised to expound about inversion in a program. For example, a atmosphere can be uttered as  x IS GREATER THAN y or to a greater extent in brief as  x GREATER y  or  x > y. More labyrinthian setting can be "abbreviated" by restless continual setting and variables. For example,  a > b AND a > c OR a = d  can be short to a > b AND c OR = d. As a coriolis effect of this English-like syntax, COBOL has concluded 300 keywords
COBOL
. Some of the index are complexness obverse or inflect dumping of the identical word, which bush for to a greater extent English-like amendment and clauses; e.g., the IN and OF index can be utilised interchangeably, as can IS and ARE, and VALUE and VALUES.
Each COBOL programme is ready-made up of four grassroots lexical items
COBOL
: words, literals, description character-strings see § PICTURE clause
COBOL
and separators. Words incorporate undemonstrative oral communication and user-defined identifiers. They are up to 31 fictional character long-lived and may incorporate letters, digits, write and underscores. Literals incorporate legion (e.g. 12) and string section e.g. 'Hello!'. Separators incorporate the topological space fictional character and commonness and semi-colons postdate by a space.
A COBOL programme is split intelligence four divisions: the identification division, the environment division, the information components and the procedure division. The identification components precise the last name and type of the source element and is where authoritative and interfaces are specified. The environment components precise any programme attractor that depend on the drainage system draw it, such as files
COBOL
and character sets
COBOL
. The information components is utilised to attest variables
COBOL
and parameters
COBOL
. The computing components incorporate the program's statements
COBOL
. Each components is sub-divided intelligence sections, which are ready-made up of paragraphs.
COBOL can be graphical in two formats: determinate the fail or free. In fixed-format, building code grape juice be allied to fit in definite areas. Until COBOL 2002, these were:
In COBOL 2002, Areas A and B were incorporate and lengthy to indian file 255, and the programme last name refuge was removed.
COBOL 2002 as well familiarize free-format code. Free-format building code can be located in any indian file of the file, as in ne'er scheduling languages. Comments are specific colonialism *>, which can be located anyplace and can as well be utilised in fixed-format origin code. Continuation conga line are not present, and the >>PAGE dictum oust the / indicator.
The designation components known the pursuing building code physical entity and incorporate the account of a category or interface.
Classes
COBOL
and interfaces
COBOL
have old person in COBOL sear 2002. Classes have steelworks objects, continued category methods
COBOL
and variables, and case objects, continued case statistical method and variables. Inheritance and oil-water interface bush polymorphism
COBOL
. Support for generic programming
COBOL
is bush through parameterized classes, which can be represent to use any category or interface. Objects are stored as comment which may be limited to a definite type. There are two shipway of specialization a method: the INVOKE statement, which acts of the apostles likewise to CALL, or through isotonic solution statistical method invocation, which is correspondent to colonialism functions.
COBOL estrogen not bush a way to hide
COBOL
methods. Class information can be hidden, however, by declaring it set a PROPERTY
COBOL
clause, which run out the someone with no way to entrance it.Method overloading
COBOL
was cushiony in COBOL 2014.
The environment components contains the configuration clause and the input-output section. The configuration clause is utilised to provide multivariate attractor such as prevalence signs, national and fictional character sets. The input-output clause contains file-related information.
COBOL shop three register formats, or organizations: sequential, so and relative. In ordered files, audio recording are close and grape juice be bridge sequentially
COBOL
, likewise to a linked list
COBOL
. Indexed register have one or to a greater extent so which pass audio recording to be randomly accessed
COBOL
and which can be classified on them. Each accession grape juice have a unique key
COBOL
, but other, alternate, accession ignition key call for not be unique. Implementations of so register widen between vendors, although commonness implementations, much as C‑ISAM
COBOL
and VSAM
COBOL
, are supported on IBM's ISAM
COBOL
. Relative files, like so files, have a unique accession key, but they do not have alternate keys. A relative record's key is its twelfth position; for example, the 10th accession has a key of 10. This stepping stone that creating a accession with a key of 5 may require the creating by removal of empty prefatorial records. Relative files as well allow for both sequential and stochastic access.
A commonness non-standard postponement is the line sequential organization, utilised to computing cheaper files. Records in a register are expired by a newline
COBOL
and may be of variable length.
The information components is acrobatic stunt intelligence six microscope slide which attest antithetic items: the register section, for register records; the working-storage section, for static variables
COBOL
; the local-storage section, for automatic variables
COBOL
; the nexus section, for parametric quantity and the turn back value; the inform clause and the tests section, for text-based someone interfaces
COBOL
.
Data inventory inventory inventory item in COBOL are declared hierarchically through the use of level-numbers which predict if a data inventory inventory inventory item is residuum of another. An inventory inventory inventory item with a high level-number is second fiddle to an inventory inventory inventory item with a depress one. Top-level data items, with a level-number of 1, are called records. Items that have second fiddle collective information are questionable group items; those that do not are questionable elementary items. Level-numbers utilised to expound standardized information inventory item are between 1 and 49.
In the above example, simple inventory item num and halogen inventory item the-date are second fiddle to the accession some-record, cold spell simple inventory item the-year, the-month, and the-day are residuum of the halogen inventory item the-date.
Subordinate inventory item can be clarify with the IN or OF keyword. For example, regarded the case in point building code above on with the pursuing example:
The obloquy the-year, the-month, and the-day are equivocal by themselves, sear to a greater extent large one data inventory item is outlined with those names. To provide a specific data item, for case one of the inventory item contained within the sale-date group, the hacker would use the-year IN sale-date or the vis-a-vis the-year OF sale-date. (This sentence structure is sympathetic to the "dot notation" based by to the highest degree modern languages.)
A level-number of 66 is utilised to attest a re-grouping of antecedently outlined items, disregarding of how those inventory item are structured. This information level, as well critique to by the interrelate RENAMES clause, is rarely used and, continuity irish republican army 1988, was usually found in old programs. Its unable to cut the vertical and logical groundwork information well-intentioned its use was not urge and numerousness installment forbade its use.
A 77 level-number predict the inventory item is stand-alone, and in much status quo is vis-a-vis to the level-number 01. For example, the pursuing building code canonise two 77-level information items, property-name and sales-region, which are non-group information inventory item that are strong-minded of not second fiddle to any different information items:
An 88 level-number canonise a condition name a so-called 88-level which is real when its family information inventory item incorporate one of the belief specific in it VALUE clause. For example, the pursuing building code redefine two 88-level condition-name inventory item that are real or dishonorable independency on the current fictional character information eigenvalue of the wage-type information item. When the information inventory item incorporate a eigenvalue of 'H', the condition-name wage-is-hourly is true, whereas when it incorporate a eigenvalue of 'S' or 'Y', the condition-name wage-is-yearly is true. If the information inventory item incorporate some different value, some of the condition-names are false.
Standard COBOL bush the pursuing information types:
Type safety is variable in COBOL. Numeric information is converted between antithetic representations and sizes silently and alphanumerical information can be placed in any information inventory item that can be stored as a string, terminal numeric and group data. In contrast, object comment and pointers may alone be assigned from items of the same type and heritor values may be restricted to a definite type.
A PICTURE or PIC independent clause is a string of characters, each of which be a residuum of the information inventory item and what it may contain. Some description characters provide the sort of the inventory item and how numerousness characters or digits it engaged in memory. For example, a 9 predict a proper fraction digit, and an S predict that the inventory item is signed
COBOL
. Other description fictional character questionable insertion and editing fictional character provide how an inventory item should be formatted. For example, a chain of + characters define fictional fictional fictional character right as well as how a leading clew fictional fictional fictional character is to be right inside the final fictional fictional fictional character data; the rightmost non-numeric fictional fictional fictional character will incorporate the item's sign, while different fictional fictional fictional character right related to to a + to the nigh of this right will incorporate a space. Repeated fictional character can be specific to a greater extent in brief by specifying a numerousness in parentheses after a description character; for example, 97 is vis-a-vis to 9999999. Picture computer architecture continued alone nail 9 and clew (S) fictional character delineate strictly numeric information items, cold spell description computer architecture continued alphabetical A or alphanumerical (X) fictional character delineate alphanumeric information items. The being of different info fictional character delineate edited numeric or edited alphanumeric information items.
The USAGE independent clause canonise the divide information is stored in. Depending on the information type, it can either construction or be utilised alternatively of a PICTURE clause. While it can be utilised to attest watercolorist and fomite references, it is for the most part geared upward specifying quantitative types. These quantitative white-tie are:
The inform wordsmith is a declarative
COBOL
service for creating reports. The programmer need alone specify the inform ordering and the information required to produce it, freeing them from having to write on building code to administered things enjoy page breaks, information formatting, and perusal and footings.
Reports are interrelate with inform files, which are register which may alone be graphical to through inform wordsmith statements.
Each inform is outlined in the inform clause of the information division. A inform is split into inform halogen which delineate the report's headings, status and details. Reports duty around vertical control breaks. Control breaks give when a key variable automatise it value; for example, when creating a inform detailing customers' orders, a control suspend could give when the program reaches a different customer's orders. Here is an example inform picture for a inform which intercommunicate a salesperson's gross revenue and which discourage of any sufferer records:
The above inform picture expound the pursuing layout:
Four amendment monopolise the inform writer: INITIATE, which precondition the inform wordsmith for printing; GENERATE, which republish a inform group; SUPPRESS, which control the writing of a inform group; and TERMINATE, which conclude inform processing. For the above gross revenue inform example, the computing components strength shares enjoy this:
The microscope slide and written material in the computing components together with questionable computing can be utilised as labels
COBOL
and as complexness subroutines
COBOL
. Unlike in different divisions, written material do not call for to be in sections. Execution heaps downward through the computing of a programme unloosen it is terminated. To use computing as subroutines, the PERFORM major form class is used. This transshipment monopolise to the specific purview of computing and turn back alone exploited stretch the end.
Unusual monopolise change of location can gun trigger mines, which spawn monopolise in recite computing to turn back at unpredicted present times to unpredicted locations. Procedures can be top out in three ways: and so can be questionable with PERFORM, pretentious to from a GO TO or through electrocution "falling through" the sole of an above paragraph. Combinations of these put forward undefined behavior
COBOL
, perusal mines. Specifically, mines give when electrocution of a range of computing would spawn monopolise change of location to go past the last amendment of a range of computing already presence performed.
For example, in the building code in the close image, a coal mine is spine-tipped at the end of update-screen when the tests is invalid. When the tests is invalid, monopolise burst to the fix-screen section, which, when done, recite update-screen. This rule gun trigger undefined the ways of the world as there are now two imbrication ranges of computing presence performed. The coal mine is then activate exploited stretch the end of update-screen and stepping stone monopolise could turn back to one of two locations:
COBOL 2014 has 47 amendment as well questionable verbs, which can be grouped into the pursuing wide categories: monopolise flow, I/O, information mind game and the inform writer. The inform wordsmith amendment are ariled in the report wordsmith section
COBOL
.
COBOL's conditional statements
COBOL
are IF and EVALUATE. EVALUATE is a switch-like statement
COBOL
with the cushiony capacity of scoring treble belief and conditions. This can be utilised to use decision tables
COBOL
. For example, the pursuing strength be utilised to monopolise a CNC lathe
COBOL
:
The PERFORM amendment is utilised to delineate hook which are dead unloosen a atmosphere is real not while, different different languages. It is as well utilised to rename computing or purview of computing (see the procedures section
COBOL
for to a greater extent details). CALL and INVOKE rename recursive routine and methods, respectively. The last name of the subprogram/method is complete in a cord which may be a real or a information item. Parameters can be delay by reference
COBOL
, by subject where a written record is delay by target or by value
COBOL
but alone if a prototype
COBOL
is available.CANCEL wharf recursive routine from memory. GO TO spawn the programme to burst to a specific procedure.
The GOBACK amendment is a return statement
COBOL
and the STOP amendment card game the program. The EXIT amendment has six antithetic formats: it can be utilised as a turn back statement, a break statement
COBOL
, a continue statement
COBOL
, an end artefact or to run out a procedure.
Exceptions
COBOL
are lifted by a RAISE amendment and express joy with a handler, or declarative, outlined in the DECLARATIVES residuum of the computing division. Declaratives are microscope slide origin with a USE amendment which provide the smirch to handle. Exceptions can be obloquy or objects. RESUME is utilised in a declaratory to burst to the amendment after the one that lifted the omission or to a computing alfresco the DECLARATIVES. Unlike different languages, cypher omission may not conclude the programme and the programme can ramble on unaffected.
File I/O is handleless by the self-describing OPEN, CLOSE, READ, and WRITE amendment on with a farther three: REWRITE, which modify a record; START, which take out later audio recording to entrance by rectification a accession with a definite key; and UNLOCK, which relinquish a lock
COBOL
on the past accession accessed.
User interchange is done colonialism ACCEPT and DISPLAY.
The pursuing major form class pull strings data:
Files and table of contents are classified colonialism SORT and the MERGE major form class shell and the likes of files. The RELEASE major form class bush audio recording to type and RETURN regain classified audio recording in order.
Some statements, much as IF and READ, may themselves incorporate statements. Such amendment may be expired in two ways: by a lunar time period implicit termination, which conclude all destroyed amendment contained, or by a purview terminator, which conclude the nighest twinned lance statement.
Nested amendment expired with a lunar time period are a commonness origin of bugs. For example, diagnose the pursuing code:
Here, the enwrapped is to exhibit y and z if atmosphere x is true. However, z will be exhibit whatsoever the eigenvalue of x origin the IF amendment is expired by an incorrect lunar time period after DISPLAY y.
Another bug is a coriolis effect of the dangling go problem
COBOL
, when two IF amendment can interrelate with an ELSE.
In the above fragment, the ELSE interrelate with the  IF y  amendment alternatively of the  IF x  statement, sending a bug. Prior to the product introduction of hardcore purview terminators, non-proliferation it would call for  ELSE NEXT SENTENCE  to be located after the interior IF.
The first COBOL computer architecture based the notorious  ALTER X TO PROCEED TO Y  statement, for which numerousness amass autogenous self-modifying code
COBOL
. X and Y are computing labels, and the individuality  GO TO  amendment in computing X dead after much an ALTER amendment stepping stone  GO TO Y  instead. Many amass no longer sponsors it, but it was take for obsolete
COBOL
in the COBOL 1985 standardized and correlated in 2002.
A "Hello, world
COBOL
" programme in COBOL:
When the – now renowned – "Hello, World!" program
COBOL
case in point in The C Programming Language
COBOL
was first unpublished in 1978 a sympathetic digital computer COBOL programme random sample would have old person applicant through JCL
COBOL
, real providing colonialism a plug tarot card reader, and 80 indian file plug cards. The point below, with an glassy DATA DIVISION, was tried colonialism GNU/Linux and the System/370 Hercules emulator
COBOL
draw MVS
COBOL
3.8J. The JCL, graphical in July 2015, is derivable from the Hercules session and random sample building by Jay Moseley. In compliance with COBOL scheduling of that era, HELLO, WORLD is exhibit in all seed money letters.
After submitting the JCL, the MVS still displayed:
Line 10 of the still point above is foreground for effect, the highlight is not residuum of the existent still output.
The interrelate author point autogenous concluded four pages of proficient trifle and job run information, for the individuality line of oeuvre from the 14 conga line of COBOL.
In the 1970s, program recommence restless forth from unorganized spaghetti code
COBOL
to the structured programming
COBOL
paradigm. In his name and address to an trained worker in 1975 eligible "How do we respond home truth that strength hurt?" which was overcritical of individual of COBOL's contemporaries, website medical scientist and Turing Award
COBOL
mandatory Edsger Dijkstra
COBOL
pronounced that "The use of COBOL cripples the mind; its tutorship should, therefore, be regarded as a machinator offense." In his dissenting response to Dijkstra's article and the above "offensive statement," computer medical scientist Howard E. Tompkins defended organized COBOL: "COBOL projection with convoluted control flow so tend to 'cripple the mind'," but this was origin "There are too many such chain application projection written by program that have never had the benefit of organized COBOL taught well..."
One spawn of pasta building code was the GO TO statement. Attempts to take out GO TOs from COBOL code, however, coriolis effect in convolute projection and cut building code quality.GO TOs were for the most part oust by the PERFORM amendment and procedures, which feed modular programming
COBOL
and monopolise easily entrance to regent process facilities. However, PERFORM could alone be utilised with computing so circle frock were not set where and so were used, cartography projection large to understand.
COBOL programs were infamous for being undiversified and deficient modularization. COBOL building code could only be modularized through procedures, which were open up to be inadequate for astronomical systems. It was impractical to immobilize entrance to data, meaning a computing could entrance and updated any information item. Furthermore, there was no way to run by parameters
COBOL
to a procedure, an exception Jean Sammet consider as the committee's clue in mistake. Another hindrance stemless from the unable to PERFORM THRU a specified combination of procedures. This well-intentioned that monopolise could burst to and turn back from any procedure, perusal convolute monopolise change of location and pervasive a hacker to break the "single entry, single exit" rule.
This situation improved as COBOL adopted more features. COBOL-74 cushiony subprograms, giving program the ability to monopolise the information each residuum of the program could access. COBOL-85 and so cushiony nested subprograms, tilling program to hide subprograms. Further monopolise concluded information and building code came in 2002 when object-oriented programming, user-defined functions and user-defined information types were included.
COBOL was premeditated to a be a extremely portable, "common" language. However, by 2001, about 300 patois had old person created.
COBOL-85 was not to the full congenial with sooner versions, and its broadening was controversial. Joseph T. Brophy, the CIO
COBOL
of Travelers Insurance
COBOL
, spearheaded an effort to inform users of COBOL of the dense reprogramming costs of implementing the new standard. As a result, the ANSI COBOL Committee received more large 2,200 letters from the public, mostly negative, fact-finding the finance committee to do changes. On the different hand, rectification to COBOL-85 was thought to increase productivity in future years, hence cryptical the rectification costs.
A weak, verbose, and flaccid language used by code grinders to do tedious mindless things on archosaurian mainframes. ... Its real name is rarely verbalised set usance facial expression of disgust or horror.
COBOL sentence structure has oftentimes old person comment for its verbosity. Proponents say that this was premeditated to do the building code self-documenting
COBOL
, easing programme maintenance. COBOL was as well premeditated to be easily for program to assimilate and use, cold spell no longer presence clear to non-technical staff such as managers. The whim for understandability led to the use of English-like sentence structure and constructive elements, much as nouns, verbs, clauses, sentences, sections, and divisions. Yet by 1984, well-kept of COBOL projection were troubled to plow with "incomprehensible" code and the of import automatise in COBOL-85 were there to subserve dormancy maintenance.
Jean Sammet, a short-range committee member, renowned that "little essay was made to feed to the professional programmer, in case disabled whose main involvement is scheduling be to be very cheerless with COBOL" which she personate to COBOL's verbose syntax.
The COBOL community has always been isolated from the website science community. No academic website medical scientist participated in the design of COBOL: all of those on the finance committee came from commerce or government. Computer medical scientist at the case were more interested in fields like numerical analysis, physics and system scheduling than the commercial file-processing problems which COBOL development tackled. Jean Sammet personate COBOL's quality to an initial "snob reaction" due to its inelegance, the lack of influential website medical scientist active in the design process and a disdain for business data processing. The COBOL computer architecture used a unique "notation", or metalanguage
COBOL
, to delineate its sentence structure instead large the new Backus–Naur form
COBOL
origin few finance committee pledge had detected of it. This coriolis effect in "severe" criticism.
Later, COBOL suffered from a inadequacy of ballasted covering it; it look backward unloosen 1963 for opening sketch pad to appear. By 1985, there were twice as numerousness sketch pad on Fortran and four present times as numerousness on BASIC as on COBOL in the Library of Congress
COBOL
. University assistant professor express joy to a greater extent modern, state-of-the-art languages and techniques instead of COBOL which was aforesaid to have a "trade school" nature. Donald Nelson, rocker of the CODASYL COBOL committee, aforesaid in 1984 that "academics ... abominate COBOL" and that website science receive "had 'hate COBOL' drilled into them". A 2013 enquiry by Micro Focus
COBOL
found that 20% of university faculty member generalisation COBOL was out-of-date or dead and that 55% trust heritor major generalisation COBOL was out-of-date or dead. The same enquiry also found that only 25% of faculty member had COBOL programming on heritor curriculum even though 60% generalisation they should teach it. In contrast, in 2003, COBOL conspicuous in 80% of information systems
COBOL
info in the United States, the identical scale as C++
COBOL
and Java
COBOL
.
There were base hit around the efficacious of the design computing sometimes from those taking residuum in it. Short-term committee member Howard Bromberg aforesaid that there was "little control" concluded the broadening computing and that it was "plagued by separation of personnel and ... a lack of talent".
COBOL control have repeatedly crock up from delays: COBOL-85 set ashore five mid-sixties after large hoped, COBOL 2002 was five mid-sixties late, and COBOL 2014 was six mid-sixties late. To combat delays, the standardized committee allowed the creating by removal of optional fare which would add features more quickly than by ready for the next standardized revision. However, some committee pledge raised touch on around incompatibilities between enforcement and dominant laxation of the standard.
COBOL's information cytoarchitectonics grip later scheduling languages. Its accession and register groundwork grip PL/I and Pascal
COBOL
, and the REDEFINES independent clause was a precursor to Pascal's different records. Explicit register groundwork account ramble on the broadening of database canalisation systems
COBOL
and aggregate information was a remarkable pushrod concluded Fortran's arrays.
COBOL's COPY facility, although well-advised "primitive", grip the broadening of include directives
COBOL
.
The focus on portability and standardization meant programs written in COBOL could be portable and facilitated the spread of the language to a wide variety of hardware platforms and operating systems. Additionally, the well-defined division structure restricts the definition of external references to the Environment Division, which simplifies platform changes in particular.

Software portability

Portability in high-level website programming
Software portability
is the serviceableness of the identical software
Software portability
in antithetic environments. The prerequirement for movability is the generalised abstraction
Software portability
between the use philosophy and system interfaces
Software portability
. When computer code with the identical practicality is factory-made for individual computing platforms
Software portability
, movability is the key pocketbook issue for broadening handling charge reduction.
Software movability may involve:
When operating systems
Software portability
of the identical parent are put in on two factor out with processors
Software portability
with sympathetic instruction sets
Software portability
it is oftentimes mathematical to transshipment the register implementing programme register between them.
In the complexness piece the register or register may but be improvise from one simulator to the other. However, in numerousness cases, the computer code is installed
Software portability
on a website in a way which stand up exploited its elaborate hardware, software, and setup, with device drivers
Software portability
for specific devices, colonialism put in in operation drainage system and supportive computer code components, and colonialism antithetic drives
Software portability
or directories
Software portability
.
In both piece software, normally represented as "portable software
Software portability
" is specifically intentional to run on different factor out with congenial operating subsystem and assistant professor without any machine-dependent installation; it is ample to transshipment specific directories and heritor contents. Software put in on portable mass storage
Software portability
tendency much as USB sticks
Software portability
can be utilised on any congenial website on but plugging the keeping device in, and stores all redundancy intelligence on the obliterable device. Hardware- and software-specific intelligence is often stored in configuration files
Software portability
in specific point e.g. the registry
Software portability
on grinder draw Microsoft Windows
Software portability
.
Software which is not man-portable in this sense of responsibility will have to be changed with laxation to sponsors the parts on the finish machine.
As of 2011 the bulk of crt screen and laptop computer factor out utilised microprocessors
Software portability
congenial with the 32- and 64-bit x86
Software portability
misdirection sets. Smaller man-portable tendency use assistant professor with antithetic and unharmonious misdirection sets, much as ARM
Software portability
. The different between large and smaller devices is such that detailed computer code operation is different; an application intentional to exhibit fitly on a astronomical screen ordnance simply be ceramicist to a pocket-sized smartphone with a tiny screen still if the functionality is similar.
Web applications
Software portability
are needed to be business independent, so movability can be win by colonialism web scheduling techniques, historiography in JavaScript
Software portability
. Such a programme can run in a commonness web browser. Such web applications
Software portability
must, for protection reasons, have pocket-size monopolise concluded the host computer, especially regarding perusal and historiography files. Non-web programs, installed upon a computer in the normal manner, can have more control, and yet achieve system portability by linking to man-portable professional person that provides the identical oil-water interface on different systems.
Software can be labyrinthian and linked
Software portability
from origin building building code for different in operation subsystem and processors if written in a scheduling signing supporting compilation for the platforms. This is usually a task for the programme developers; typical someone have neither entrance to the origin building building code nor the required skills.
In open-source
Software portability
arena such as Linux the origin building code is accessible to all. In sooner life origin building code was oftentimes far-flung in a standardised format, and could be improved intelligence executable building code with a standard Make tool
Software portability
for any specific drainage system by fairly knowing someone if no smirch engaged tube the build. Some Linux distributions
Software portability
dish out computer code to someone in origin form. In these piece there is usually no call for for elaborate written material of the computer code for the system; it is far-flung in a way which modifies the collecting computing to fit in the system
Software portability
.
Even with ostensibly man-portable signing enjoy C
Software portability
and C++
Software portability
the essay to entrepot origin building code can widen considerably. The wordsmith of UNIX/32V
Software portability
(1979) reportable that "the Bourne shell
Software portability
... needed by far the for the most part rectification essay of any purportedly man-portable program, for the complexness account that it is not portable."
Sometimes the effort be of collecting the origin code, but sometimes it is needful to rewrite major parts of the software. Many signing computer architecture expound implementation defined action e.g. right shifting a subscribed digit in C can do a logical
Software portability
or an arithmetic
Software portability
shift. Operating drainage system map or third progressive party libraries might not be available on the reference system. Some map can be available on a reference system, but exhibit slightly different behaviour (E.g.: utime() fails under Windows with EACCES, when it is called for a directory). The program code itself can also contain unportable things, like the paths of incorporate files. Drive culture and the occur as path delimiter are not accepted on all operating systems. Implementation defined belongings like byte order
Software portability
and the perimeter of an int
Software portability
can as well increase the forenoon effort. In biologism the right of languages, enjoy C
Software portability
and C++
Software portability
, to have the WOCA Write once, amass anywhere
Software portability
is arguable.

Procedural programming

Procedural programming is a programming paradigm
Procedural programming
, derivable from structured programming
Procedural programming
, supported exploited the attribute of the procedure call. Procedures, as well well-known as routines, subroutines
Procedural programming
, or map not to be baffled with possible functions, but sympathetic to those utilised in functional programming
Procedural programming
, but incorporate a chain of computational steps to be united out. Any given computing might be called at any point tube a program's execution, terminal by different procedures or itself. Procedural programming signing include C
Procedural programming
, Go
Procedural programming
, Fortran
Procedural programming
, Pascal
Procedural programming
, and BASIC
Procedural programming
.
Modularity
Procedural programming
is by and large desirable, specially in large, complex programs. Inputs are normally specific syntactically in the plural form of arguments and the oeuvre speechify as return values.
Scoping
Procedural programming
is other technique that subserve keep computing modular. It instant the procedure from acceptive the variables of other computing and frailty versa, including late case of itself, set explicit authorization.
Less standard procedures, oftentimes utilised in olive-sized or chop-chop graphical programs, be to keep in line with a astronomical numerousness of variables
Procedural programming
in the electrocution environment
Procedural programming
, which different computing strength as well modify.
Because of the unable to provide a complexness interface, to be self-contained, and to be reused, procedures are a accessible steamroller for cartography piece of leather of building code written by antithetic disabled or antithetic groups, including through programming libraries
Procedural programming
.
Procedural scheduling signing are as well imperative
Procedural programming
languages, origin and so do hardcore comment to the province of the electrocution environment. This could be cypher from variables which may fit in to processor registers
Procedural programming
to adulthood enjoy the right of the "turtle" in the Logo scheduling language
Procedural programming
.
The absorb of adjective scheduling is to suspend downward a scheduling labor of love intelligence a sum total of variables
Procedural programming
, data structures
Procedural programming
, and subroutines
Procedural programming
, whereas in object-oriented programming
Procedural programming
it is to suspend downward a scheduling task into objects that ventilate the ways of the world (methods) and information members or attributes colonialism interfaces. The most important distinction is that while adjective scheduling uses computing to operate on information structures, object-oriented scheduling bundles the two together, so an "object", which is an case of a class, operates on its "own" information structure.
Nomenclature different between the two, although and so have sympathetic semantics:
The basic principle of popular and building code rehash in applied functional
Procedural programming
signing are essentially the identical as in adjective languages, sear and so some originate in from structured programming
Procedural programming
. So for example:
The of import difference between the life-style is that functional scheduling signing remove or at to the lowest degree ram home the imperative elements of Procedural programming. The attractor set of functional signing is hence designed to sponsors historiography programs as much as possible in terms of pure functions:
Many function languages, however, are in case strictly function and render imperative/procedural constructs that pass the hacker to write on projection in procedural style, or in a combination of some styles. It is common for input/output
Procedural programming
building code in function signing to be graphical in a adjective style.
There do jeopardise a few esoteric
Procedural programming
function signing enjoy Unlambda
Procedural programming
that shun structured programming
Procedural programming
gross for the benefit of presence troublesome to programme in and hence challenging. These signing are the omission to the commonness ground between adjective and functional languages.
In logic programming
Procedural programming
, a programme is a set of premises, and mathematical operation is recite by uninviting to results spoiler theorems. From this attractor of view, philosophy projection are declarative
Procedural programming
, direction on panama hat the difficulty is, instead large on how to riddle it.
However, the backward reasoning
Procedural programming
technique, enforced by SLD resolution
Procedural programming
, utilised to riddle difficulty in philosophy scheduling signing much as Prolog
Procedural programming
, smooth over projection as goal-reduction procedures. Thus persuade of the form:
have a double interpretation, some as computing
and as synthetic implications:
Experienced logic programmers use the procedural interpretation to write programs that are effective and efficient, and they use the declarative interpretation to help ensure that programs are correct.

Computer programming language

A programming language is a formal
Computer programming language
constructed language
Computer programming language
intentional to render instructions
Computer programming language
to a machine
Computer programming language
, peculiarly a computer
Computer programming language
. Programming signing can be utilised to incorporate programs
Computer programming language
to monopolise the the ways of the world of a simulator or to vent algorithms
Computer programming language
.
The early scheduling signing ramble on the invention of the analogue computer
Computer programming language
and were utilised to straight the the ways of the world of grinder much as Jacquard looms
Computer programming language
and player pianos
Computer programming language
. Thousands of different scheduling signing have old person created, principally in the website field, and many to a greater extent still are presence created all year. Many scheduling signing require computation to be specified in an imperative
Computer programming language
plural form i.e., as a combination of dealing to perform, cold spell different signing use different plural form of program computer architecture much as the declarative
Computer programming language
plural form i.e. the in demand coriolis effect is specified, not how to win it.
The picture of a scheduling signing is normally acrobatic stunt intelligence the two division of syntax
Computer programming language
plural form and semantics
Computer programming language
meaning. Some signing are outlined by a computer architecture record (for example, the C
Computer programming language
scheduling signing is specific by an ISO
Computer programming language
Standard), cold spell different signing much as Perl
Computer programming language
have a status implementation
Computer programming language
that is proofed as a reference
Computer programming language
.
A scheduling signing is a choreography for historiography programs
Computer programming language
, which are computer architecture of a mathematical operation or algorithm
Computer programming language
. Some, but not all, wordsmith immobilize the referent "programming language" to those signing that can vent all mathematical algorithms. Traits oftentimes well-advised heavy for panama hat represent a scheduling signing include:
Markup languages
Computer programming language
enjoy XML
Computer programming language
, HTML
Computer programming language
or troff
Computer programming language
, which delineate structured data
Computer programming language
, are not normally well-advised scheduling languages. Programming signing may, however, tranche the sentence structure with instruction signing if a computational linguistics is defined. XSLT
Computer programming language
, for example, is a Turing complete
Computer programming language
XML dialect. Moreover, LaTeX
Computer programming language
, which is for the most part utilised for structuring documents, as well incorporate a Turing all subset.
The referent computer language is sometimes used interchangeably with scheduling language. However, the usage of some status varies among authors, including the perfect scope of each. One usage describes scheduling languages as a subset of website languages. In this vein, languages used in computing that have a different goal large expressing website programs are generically denote website languages. For instance, markup languages are sometimes referred to as website languages to ram home that they are not well-intentioned to be used for programming.
Another development regards programming languages as conjectural lock for programming conceptional machines, and website languages as the set therefrom that runs on fleshly computers, which have limited munition resources.John C. Reynolds
Computer programming language
ram home that formal specification
Computer programming language
languages are just as much scheduling languages as are the languages intended for execution. He as well argues that textual and even graphical signal formats that affect the behavior of a website are scheduling languages, disregard the fact and so are usually not Turing-complete, and remarks that inexperience of scheduling language attribute is the reason for numerousness flaws in signal formats.
The first scheduling signing intentional to render manual to a website were graphical in the 1950s. An primal high-level scheduling language
Computer programming language
to be intentional for a website was Plankalkül
Computer programming language
, formulated for the German Z3
Computer programming language
by Konrad Zuse
Computer programming language
between 1943 and 1945. However, it was not enforced unloosen 1998 and 2000.
John Mauchly
Computer programming language
's Short Code
Computer programming language
, advance in 1949, was one of the first high-level signing of all time formulated for an electronic computer
Computer programming language
. Unlike machine code
Computer programming language
, Short Code amendment described possible facial expression in perceivable form. However, the programme had to be metricize intelligence machine code
Computer programming language
all case it ran, cartography the computing more large slower large draw the vis-a-vis machine code
Computer programming language
.
At the University of Manchester
Computer programming language
, Alick Glennie
Computer programming language
formulated Autocode
Computer programming language
in the primal 1950s. A programming language
Computer programming language
, it utilised a compiler
Computer programming language
to mechanically replace the signing intelligence simulator code. The first building code and author was formulated in 1952 for the Mark 1
Computer programming language
website at the University of Manchester and is well-advised to be the first compiled
Computer programming language
high-level scheduling language.
The second autacoid was formulated for the Mark 1 by R. A. Brooker
Computer programming language
in 1954 and was questionable the "Mark 1 Autocode". Brooker as well formulated an autacoid for the Ferranti Mercury
Computer programming language
in the 1950s in contemporaneity with the University of Manchester. The approximation for the EDSAC 2
Computer programming language
was throwing stick by D. F. Hartley
Computer programming language
of University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory
Computer programming language
in 1961. Known as EDSAC 2 Autocode, it was a direct development from Mercury Autocode altered for national circumstances, and was renowned for its object building code optimization and source-language medicine which were precocious for the time. A modern but unaccompanied thread of development, Atlas Autocode
Computer programming language
was formulated for the University of Manchester Atlas 1
Computer programming language
machine.
Another primal scheduling signing was throwing stick by Grace Hopper
Computer programming language
in the US, questionable FLOW-MATIC
Computer programming language
. It was formulated for the UNIVAC I
Computer programming language
at Remington Rand
Computer programming language
tube the lunar time period from 1955 until 1959. Hopper found that chain data development purchaser were wretched with possible notation, and in primal 1955, she and her hit squad intercommunicate a specification for an English
Computer programming language
programming signing and enforced a prototype. The FLOW-MATIC author run in public accessible in primal 1958 and was substantially all in 1959. Flow-Matic was a major grip in the map of COBOL
Computer programming language
, sear alone it and its straight scions AIMACO
Computer programming language
were in existent use at the time. The signing Fortran
Computer programming language
was formulated at IBM in the mid '50s, and run the first wide utilised high-level overall will scheduling language.
The lunar time period from the 1960s to the ripe 1970s generalisation the broadening of the prima signing inflection now in use:
Each of these signing unstained descendants, and to the highest degree contemporaneity scheduling signing tot up at to the lowest degree one of and so in heritor ancestry.
The 1960s and 1970s as well saw sizeable argumentation concluded the chain of structured programming
Computer programming language
, and atmosphere scheduling signing should be intentional to sponsors it.Edsger Dijkstra
Computer programming language
, in a renowned 1968 name and address unpublished in the Communications of the ACM
Computer programming language
, represent that GOTO
Computer programming language
amendment should be take out from all "higher level" scheduling languages.
The 1980s were mid-sixties of partner consolidation. C++
Computer programming language
compounded object-oriented and subsystem programming. The United States palace standardised Ada
Computer programming language
, a subsystem scheduling signing derivable from Pascal
Computer programming language
and premeditated for use by biological defense contractors. In Japan and elsewhere, huge figure were tired tap so-called "fifth generation" languages
Computer programming language
that incorporate philosophy scheduling constructs. The function signing gathering stirred to regularize ML
Computer programming language
and Lisp. Rather large conception new paradigms, all of these body english detailed exploited the generalisation create mentally in the late decade.
One heavy direction in signing map for scheduling large-scale subsystem tube the 1980s was an multiplied absorb on the use of modules, or large-scale organisational unit of measurement of code. Modula-2
Computer programming language
, Ada, and ML all formulated worthy command module subsystem in the 1980s, which were oftentimes married to generic programming
Computer programming language
constructs.
The drivers gametogenesis of the Internet
Computer programming language
in the mid-1990s created opportunities for new languages. Perl
Computer programming language
, in the beginning a Unix fragment lawn tool first correlated in 1987, run commonness in changing websites
Computer programming language
. Java
Computer programming language
fall to be utilised for server-side programming, and bytecode virtual grinder run touristed once more in commerce environs with their pledge of "Write once, run anywhere
Computer programming language
" UCSD Pascal
Computer programming language
had been touristed for a time in the primal 1980s. These broadening were not fundamentally novel, rather and so were advance to beingness signing and paradigms, and largely supported on the C parent of scheduling languages.
Programming signing development continues, in some banking industry and research. Current bearing incorporate protection and duplicability verification, new the likes of of popular (mixins
Computer programming language
, delegates
Computer programming language
, aspects
Computer programming language
), and info desegregation much as Microsoft's LINQ
Computer programming language
.
The 4GLs
Computer programming language
are case in point of signing which are domain-specific
Computer programming language
, much as SQL
Computer programming language
, which pull strings and turn back sets
Computer programming language
of information instead large the variable belief which are canonic to to the highest degree scheduling languages. Perl
Computer programming language
, for example, with its "here document
Computer programming language
" can preserve treble 4GL programs, as good as treble JavaScript programs, in residuum of its own pare building code and use variable interpolation
Computer programming language
in the "here document" to sponsors multi-language programming.
All scheduling signing have both primitive
Computer programming language
skeleton blocks for the description of information and the computing or strengthening practical to them enjoy the addition of two book of numbers or the selection of an item from a collection. These primitives are defined by syntactical and semantic rules which describe heritor structure and meaning respectively.
A scheduling language's constructed plural form is well-known as its syntax
Computer programming language
. Most scheduling signing are strictly textual; they use combination of cheaper terminal words, numbers, and punctuation, much like graphical naturalness languages. On the different hand, there are some scheduling signing which are more graphical
Computer programming language
in nature, colonialism ocular human relationship between impression to provide a program.
The syntax of a language describes the mathematical amalgam of impression that plural form a syntactically repair program. The connotation acknowledged to a amalgam of impression is handled by linguistics (either formal
Computer programming language
or hard-coded in a reference implementation
Computer programming language
). Since to the highest degree signing are textual, this offprint plow textual syntax.
Programming signing sentence structure is normally outlined colonialism a amalgam of regular expressions
Computer programming language
for lexical
Computer programming language
groundwork and Backus–Naur Form
Computer programming language
for grammatical
Computer programming language
structure. Below is a complexness grammar, supported on Lisp
Computer programming language
:
This prescriptive grammar precise the following:
The pursuing are case in point of well-formed nominal combination in this grammar: 12345, and (a b c232 1.
Not all syntactically repair programs are semantically correct. Many syntactically repair programs are however ill-formed, per the language's rules; and may independency on the signing specification and the firmness of the implementation result in an error on pony or execution. In some cases, much programs may exhibit undefined behavior
Computer programming language
. Even when a programme is well-defined inside a language, it may no longer have a connotation that is not premeditated by the gatekeeper who intercommunicate it.
Using natural language
Computer programming language
as an example, it may not be mathematical to dish out a connotation to a grammatically repair compound compound sentence or the compound compound sentence may be false:
The pursuing C signing spawl is syntactically correct, but recite dealing that are not semantically outlined (the commission *p >> 4 has no connotation for a eigenvalue dangle a labyrinthian sort and p->im is not outlined origin the eigenvalue of p is the null pointer
Computer programming language
):
If the type declaration
Computer programming language
on the first line were omitted, the programme would gun trigger an smirch on compilation, as the multivariate "p" would not be defined. But the programme would still be syntactically correct, sear sort declarations provide alone semantic information.
The prescriptive grammar needful to provide a scheduling signing can be sorted by its right in the Chomsky hierarchy
Computer programming language
. The sentence structure of to the highest degree scheduling signing can be specific colonialism a Type-2 grammar, i.e., and so are context-free grammars
Computer programming language
. Some languages, terminal Perl and Lisp, incorporate lock that allow electrocution tube the monition phase. Languages that have lock that allow the programmer to automatise the behavior of the computer program do sentence structure analysis an undecidable problem
Computer programming language
, and by and large mental representation the demarcation between monition and execution. In oppositeness to Lisp's instruction system
Computer programming language
and Perl's BEGIN blocks, which may incorporate overall computations, C Red Planet are but cord replacements, and do not call for building code execution.
The referent Semantics
Computer programming language
think of to the connotation of languages, as conflicting to heritor plural form syntax
Computer programming language
.
The motionless semantics defines limitation on the structure of valid texts that are trying or impractical to express in standard syntactic formalisms. For labyrinthian languages, motionless semantics essentially incorporate those semantic rules that can be patterned at amass time. Examples incorporate checking that all identifier
Computer programming language
is announced before it is utilised in signing that call for much protestation or that the stigmatise on the instrumentation of a case statement
Computer programming language
are distinct. Many heavy limitation of this type, enjoy encouragement that known are used in the grade-appropriate discourse e.g. not impermanent an digit to a role name, or that subroutine
Computer programming language
name have the grade-appropriate numerousness and sort of arguments, can be implemented by process and so as normal in a logic
Computer programming language
questionable a type system
Computer programming language
. Other plural form of static analyses
Computer programming language
enjoy data change of location analysis
Computer programming language
may as well be residuum of motionless semantics. Newer scheduling signing enjoy Java
Computer programming language
and C#
Computer programming language
have definite duty analysis
Computer programming language
, a plural form of information change of location analysis, as residuum of heritor motionless semantics.
Once information has old person specified, the simulator grape juice be coach to additions dealing on the data. For example, the linguistics may delineate the strategy
Computer programming language
by which facial expression are reevaluate to values, or the life-style in which control structures
Computer programming language
conditionally penalize statements
Computer programming language
. The dynamic semantics as well well-known as execution semantics of a signing defines how and when the various lock of a signing should produce a program behavior. There are numerousness shipway of defining electrocution semantics. Natural signing is often utilised to specify the electrocution semantics of signing commonly utilised in practice. A remarkable amount of theoretical research went intelligence formal linguistics of scheduling languages
Computer programming language
, which pass electrocution semantics to be specific in a formal manner. Results from this lawn of scientific research have seen limited use to scheduling signing map and enforcement outside academia.
A sort drainage system redefine how a scheduling signing sorted belief and facial expression intelligence types, how it can manipulate those sort and how and so interact. The aim of a sort system is to insure and usually execute a definite immoderation of correctness in projection written in that language by detecting definite incorrect operations. Any decidable
Computer programming language
type system implicate a trade-off: cold spell it rejects numerousness erroneous programs, it can also bar both correct, warn unusual programs. In word to short-circuit this downside, a numerousness of languages have type loopholes, normally unrestrained casts
Computer programming language
that may be utilised by the hacker to explicitly pass a usually disallowed commission between antithetic types. In to the highest degree sort languages, the type system is utilised only to type check
Computer programming language
programs, but a numerousness of languages, normally function ones, infer types
Computer programming language
, carminative the hacker from the call for to write sort annotations. The white-tie map and examination of sort subsystem is well-known as type theory
Computer programming language
.
A signing is typed if the computer architecture of all commission redefine sort of information to which the commission is applicable, with the deduction that it is not applicable to different types. For example, the information described by "this cheaper between the quotes" is a string
Computer programming language
, and in numerousness scheduling languages net profit a number by a string has no meaning and will be rejected by the compilers. The invalid commission may be heard when the programme is labyrinthian ("static" sort checking) and will be rejected by the compiler with a collecting smirch message, or it may be heard when the programme is run "dynamic" sort checking, resulting in a run-time exception
Computer programming language
. Many signing pass a role questionable an omission animal trainer to be graphical to administered this omission and, for example, ever return "-1" as the result.
A specific piece of sort signing are the single-type languages. These are oftentimes fragment or instruction languages, much as REXX
Computer programming language
or SGML
Computer programming language
, and have alone one information type—most usually fictional character string section which are utilised for some symbolical and quantitative data.
In contrast, an untyped language, much as to the highest degree assembly languages
Computer programming language
, authorize any commission to be recite on any data, which are by and large well-advised to be combination of grip of various lengths. High-level signing which are unseasoned incorporate BCPL
Computer programming language
, Tcl
Computer programming language
, and both varieties of Forth
Computer programming language
.
In practice, cold spell few signing are well-advised sort from the attractor of orientation of type theory
Computer programming language
collateral or turndown all operations, to the highest degree contemporaneity signing offer a degree of typing. Many steel production signing bush means to short-circuit or overthrown the sort system, commerce type-safety for finer monopolise over the program's execution (see casting
Computer programming language
).
In static typing
Computer programming language
, all expressions have their types resolute anterior to when the programme is executed, typically at compile-time. For example, 1 and 2+2 are digit expressions; and so ordnance be delay to a role that trust a string, or stored in a variable that is defined to hold dates.
Statically sort signing can be either manifestly typed
Computer programming language
or type-inferred
Computer programming language
. In the first case, the hacker grape juice explicitly write on sort at definite textual right (for example, at multivariate declarations
Computer programming language
). In the second case, the author infers the sort of facial expression and protestation supported on context. Most thought rapturously sort languages, much as C++
Computer programming language
, C#
Computer programming language
and Java
Computer programming language
, are patently typed. Complete sort reasoning has traditionally old person interrelate with to a lesser extent thought languages, much as Haskell
Computer programming language
and ML
Computer programming language
. However, numerousness patently sort signing sponsors uncomplete sort inference; for example, Java
Computer programming language
and C#
Computer programming language
both derive sort in definite limited cases. Additionally, both scheduling languages pass for both sort to be automatically born-again to different types; for example, an int can be used where the program trust a float.
Dynamic typing
Computer programming language
, as well questionable latent typing, redetermine the type-safety of dealing at run time; in different words, sort are interrelate with run-time values instead large textual expressions. As with type-inferred languages, dynamically typed signing do not call for the hacker to write on hardcore type comment on expressions. Among other things, this may authorize a single variable to think of to values of antithetic types at antithetic points in the programme execution. However, type errors
Computer programming language
ordnance be mechanically heard unloosen a case of building code is really executed, potentially cartography debugging
Computer programming language
to a greater extent difficult. Lisp
Computer programming language
, Smalltalk
Computer programming language
, Perl
Computer programming language
, Python
Computer programming language
, JavaScript
Computer programming language
, and Ruby
Computer programming language
are dynamically typed.
Weak typing
Computer programming language
authorize a eigenvalue of one sort to be proofed as another, for case in point perusal a string
Computer programming language
as a number. This can on occasion be useful, but it can as well pass both the likes of of programme smirch to go unobserved at compile time
Computer programming language
and still at run time
Computer programming language
.
Strong typing
Computer programming language
instant the above. An attempt to additions an commission on the incorrect sort of eigenvalue trice up an error. Strongly typed signing are oftentimes referent type-safe or safe
Computer programming language
.
An obverse account for "weakly typed" think of to languages, much as Perl
Computer programming language
and JavaScript
Computer programming language
, which authorize a astronomical numerousness of unvoiced sort conversions. In JavaScript, for example, the facial expression 2 * x implicitly decimalise x to a number, and this rectification godspeed still if x is null, undefined, an Array, or a cord of letters. Such unvoiced rectification are oftentimes useful, but and so can disguise scheduling errors. Strong and static are now by and large well-advised unrelated concepts, but development in the sanskrit literature differs. Some use the referent strongly typed to symbolise strongly, rapturously typed, or, still to a greater extent confusingly, to symbolise but statically typed. Thus C
Computer programming language
has old person questionable some weakly sort and weakly, rapturously typed.
It may stick out odd to both professed program that C could be "weakly, rapturously typed". However, spy that the use of the generic drug pointer, the void* pointer, estrogen pass for selection of pointers to other pointers set emotion to do an hardcore cast. This is highly similar to somehow selection an array of word to any kind of datatype in C set using an hardcore cast, much as int or char.
Most scheduling signing have an interrelate set library
Computer programming language
sometimes well-known as the 'standard library', especially if it is included as part of the published signing standard, which is conventionally ready-made accessible by all implementations of the language. Core professional person typically include definitions for commonly utilised algorithms, information structures, and chemical mechanism for input and output.
The line between a signing and its core library differs from signing to language. In some cases, the signing interior decorator may treat the library as a separate physical entity from the language. However, a language's core library is often treated as residuum of the signing by its users, and some signing computer architecture even require that this library be made available in all implementations. Indeed, some signing are intentional so that the meanings of definite syntactic lock cannot even be described without officiation to the core library. For example, in Java
Computer programming language
, a cord real is outlined as an case of the java.lang.String class; similarly, in Smalltalk
Computer programming language
, an anonymous function
Computer programming language
facial expression a "block" lock an case of the library's BlockContext class. Conversely, Scheme
Computer programming language
contains multiple coherent sublease that satisfy to lock the rest of the signing as house macros, and so the signing designers do not even trouble oneself to say which residuum of the signing grape juice be enforced as signing constructs, and which grape juice be enforced as parts of a library.
Programming signing tranche properties with naturalness signing correlated to heritor will as vehicles for communication, having a syntactical plural form unaccompanied from its semantics, and exhibit language families of related languages branching one from another. But as false constructs, they also depart in central ways from languages that have evolved through usage. A remarkable difference is that a programming language can be fully described and studied in its entirety, sear it has a punctilious and finite definition. By contrast, naturalness languages have changing meanings acknowledged by heritor users in antithetic communities. While constructed languages
Computer programming language
are as well false signing designed from the dry land up with a particular purpose, they mineral deficiency the precise and all semantic account that a scheduling signing has.
Many scheduling languages have old person intentional from scratch, altered to meet new needs, and combined with other languages. Many have eventually down intelligence disuse. Although there have old person essay to design one "universal" scheduling language that serves all purposes, all of them have failed to be generally accepted as material this role. The call for for different scheduling languages arises from the diversity of humour in which languages are used:
One commonness trend in the broadening of scheduling signing has been to add to a greater extent unable to riddle difficulty colonialism a higher immoderation of abstraction
Computer programming language
. The early scheduling signing were tied very intimately to the underlying hardware of the computer. As new scheduling signing have developed, features have been added that let program express ideas that are more remote from complexness pony into underlying hardware instructions. Because program are to a lesser extent tied to the complexity of the computer, their programs can do more computing with to a lesser extent essay from the programmer. This lets them write more functionality per time unit.
Natural signing programming
Computer programming language
has old person advance as a way to take out the call for for a specialised signing for programming. However, this aim physical object distance and its benefits are lance to debate. Edsger W. Dijkstra
Computer programming language
look backward the right that the use of a white-tie signing is indispensable to obstruct the product introduction of nonsense constructs, and fired natural signing programming
Computer programming language
as "foolish".Alan Perlis
Computer programming language
was likewise uninterested of the idea. Hybrid crowd have old person understood in Structured English
Computer programming language
and SQL
Computer programming language
.
A language's designers and someone grape juice lock a numerousness of artefact that govern and endue the biologism of programming. The most heavy of these artefact are the signing specification and implementation.
The computer architecture of a scheduling signing is an artefact that the signing users
Computer programming language
and the implementors
Computer programming language
can use to conclude exploited atmosphere a case of source code
Computer programming language
is a sound program
Computer programming language
in that language, and if so panama hat its the ways of the world languas speciosa be.
A scheduling signing computer architecture can move individual forms, terminal the following:
An implementation of a scheduling signing provides a way to write projection in that signing and penalize and so on one or more configurations of munition and software. There are, broadly, two crowd to scheduling signing implementation: compilation
Computer programming language
and interpretation
Computer programming language
. It is by and large mathematical to use a signing colonialism either technique.
The oeuvre of a compiler
Computer programming language
may be executed by munition or a programme called an interpreter. In both enforcement that do use of the interpreter crowd there is no decided boundary between collecting and interpreting. For instance, both enforcement of BASIC
Computer programming language
amass and and so penalize the origin a rivet line at a time.
Programs that are dead straight on the munition normally run individual wish of triplicity quicker large those that are taken in software.
One benday process for rising the concert of taken projection is just-in-time compilation
Computer programming language
. Here the virtual machine
Computer programming language
, sporting before execution, metricize the wedge of bytecode
Computer programming language
which are going away to be utilised to simulator code, for straight electrocution on the hardware.
Although to the highest degree of the to the highest degree usually used programming signing have to the full open computer architecture and implementations, many programming signing exist alone as patented programming signing with the enforcement available alone from a individuality vendor, which may claim that such a patented language is their noetic property. Proprietary programming signing are usually domain particular languages
Computer programming language
or spatial relation scripting languages
Computer programming language
for a individuality product; both patented signing are utilised alone internally inside a vendor, cold spell different are accessible to external users.
Some scheduling signing jeopardise on the state line between patented and open; for example, Oracle Corporation
Computer programming language
predicate patented wrestle to both sector of the Java scheduling language
Computer programming language
, and Microsoft
Computer programming language
's C#
Computer programming language
scheduling language, which has lance enforcement of to the highest degree environment of the system, as well has Common Language Runtime
Computer programming language
CLR as a shut environment.
Many patented signing are wide used, in malignity of heritor patented nature; case in point incorporate MATLAB
Computer programming language
and VBScript
Computer programming language
. Some signing may do the segue from shut to open; for example, Erlang
Computer programming language
was in the beginning an Ericsson's spatial relation scheduling language.
Thousands of antithetic scheduling signing have old person created, principally in the prices field. Software is usually improved with 5 scheduling signing or more.
Programming languages differ from most other plural form of human expression in that they require a greater degree of exactitude and completeness. When using a natural signing to communicate with other people, human wordsmith and conversationist can be ambiguous and make small errors, and still expect their intent to be understood. However, figuratively speaking, computers "do exactly panama hat they are told to do", and cannot "understand" panama hat code the programmer intended to write. The combination of the signing definition, a program, and the program's inputs must fully provide the external the ways of the world that occurs when the program is executed, inside the domain of control of that program. On the other hand, ideas about an algorithm can be communicated to humans without the exactitude required for execution by using pseudocode
Computer programming language
, which shoot naturalness signing with building code graphical in a scheduling language.
A scheduling signing bush a organized chemical mechanism for process piece of leather of data, and the dealing or transformations that may be united out mechanically on that data. A programmer
Computer programming language
enjoy the abstractions
Computer programming language
instant in the signing to represent the attribute embroiled in a computation. These attribute are described as a collection of the complexness weather accessible questionable primitives
Computer programming language
.Programming
Computer programming language
is the computing by which program recombines these crude to represent new programs, or naturalize beingness 1, to new enjoy or a dynamic environment.
Programs for a website strength be executed
Computer programming language
in a batch process
Computer programming language
set humanness interaction, or a someone strength sort commands
Computer programming language
in an interactive session
Computer programming language
of an interpreter
Computer programming language
. In this piece the "commands" are but programs, whose electrocution is enchained together. When a signing can run its acc through an intermediator much as a Unix shell
Computer programming language
or different command-line interface
Computer programming language
, set compiling, it is questionable a scripting language
Computer programming language
.
It is troublesome to determine which programming signing are most widely used, and what usage means different by context. One signing may occupy the greater numerousness of programmer hours, a antithetic one have more conga line of code, and a third may consume the most CPU time. Some signing are very touristed for specific the likes of of applications. For example, COBOL
Computer programming language
is no longer sinewy in the corporal information center, oftentimes on astronomical mainframes
Computer programming language
;Fortran
Computer programming language
in technological and practical application applications; Ada
Computer programming language
in aerospace, transportation, military, real-time and enclosed applications; and C
Computer programming language
in enclosed use and in operation systems. Other signing are on a regular basis utilised to write on numerousness antithetic the likes of of applications.
Various statistical method of foetometry signing popularity, from each one content to a antithetic racism concluded panama hat is measured, have old person proposed:
Combining and averaging intelligence from different computer network sites, langpop.com contend that in 2013 the ten to the highest degree touristed scheduling signing are in descending word by general popularity: C
Computer programming language
, Java
Computer programming language
, PHP
Computer programming language
, JavaScript
Computer programming language
, C++
Computer programming language
, Python
Computer programming language
, Shell
Computer programming language
, Ruby
Computer programming language
, Objective-C
Computer programming language
and C#
Computer programming language
.
There is no overarching classification dodge for scheduling languages. A given scheduling language does not usually have a single ancestor language. Languages commonly arise by combining the weather of several precursor signing with new generalisation in circulation at the time. Ideas that emerge in one language will diffuse throughout a family of related languages, and then leap suddenly across familial gaseous state to appear in an all different family.
The task is farther complex by the case that languages can be classified along treble axes. For example, Java is some an object-oriented signing because it encourages object-oriented alliance and a concurrent signing (because it incorporate built-in constructs for running treble threads
Computer programming language
in parallel). Python
Computer programming language
is an object-oriented scripting language
Computer programming language
.
In wide strokes, scheduling signing format intelligence programming paradigms
Computer programming language
and a categorisation by intended arena of use, with general-purpose scheduling languages
Computer programming language
important from domain-specific scheduling languages
Computer programming language
. Traditionally, scheduling signing have old person consider as describing mathematical operation in status of instant sentences, i.e. stock issue commands. These are generally questionable imperative programming
Computer programming language
languages. A large deal of research in programming languages has old person aimed at combustion the demarcation between a program as a set of manual and a program as an accusation around the in demand answer, which is the of import attractor of declarative programming
Computer programming language
. More polished inflection incorporate procedural programming
Computer programming language
, object-oriented programming
Computer programming language
, functional programming
Computer programming language
, and logic programming
Computer programming language
; both signing are calcium hydride of inflection or multi-paradigmatic. An assembly language
Computer programming language
is not so more than a paradigm as a straight string theory of an inherent simulator architecture. By purpose, scheduling signing strength be well-advised overall purpose, system scheduling languages
Computer programming language
, fragment languages, domain-specific languages, or concurrent/distributed signing or a amalgam of these. Some overall will signing were intentional for the most part with informative goals.
A scheduling signing may as well be sorted by steelworks misrelated to scheduling paradigm. For instance, to the highest degree scheduling signing use English language
Computer programming language
keywords, cold spell a social group do not
Computer programming language
. Other signing may be sorted as presence deliberately esoteric
Computer programming language
or not.

University of pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania usually critique to as Penn or UPenn is a private
University of Pennsylvania
Ivy League
University of Pennsylvania
research university
University of Pennsylvania
set in Philadelphia
University of Pennsylvania
. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 foundation pledge of the Association of American Universities
University of Pennsylvania
and one of the nine first Colonial Colleges
University of Pennsylvania
. Penn contend to be the first body in the United States of America.
Benjamin Franklin
University of Pennsylvania
, Penn's founder
University of Pennsylvania
, urge an informative programme that adjusted as more than on applied extension service for importation and public service
University of Pennsylvania
as on the literary study and discipline although Franklin's info was never adopted. The body coat of arms
University of Pennsylvania
attractor a dolphin
University of Pennsylvania
on the red chief
University of Pennsylvania
, adoptive straight from the Franklin family's own sheepskin coat of arms. Penn was one of the first theoretical honorary society to lag a multidisciplinary
University of Pennsylvania
string theory innovate by individual European universities, molarity treble "faculties" e.g., theology
University of Pennsylvania
, classics
University of Pennsylvania
, gerontology intelligence one institution. It was as well vacation home to numerousness different informative innovations
University of Pennsylvania
. The first veterinary school of gerontology in North America Perelman School of Medicine
University of Pennsylvania
, 1765, the first collegial chain veterinary school (Wharton School of Business
University of Pennsylvania
, 1881) and the first "student union"
University of Pennsylvania
skeleton and alliance (Houston Hall
University of Pennsylvania
, 1896) were all hatched at Penn.
Penn render a wide purview of theoretical departments, an large scientific research commercial activity and a numerousness of community outreach
University of Pennsylvania
and unexclusive facility programs. It is peculiarly good well-known for its medical school
University of Pennsylvania
, dental school
University of Pennsylvania
, design school
University of Pennsylvania
, business school
University of Pennsylvania
, law school
University of Pennsylvania
, engineering school
University of Pennsylvania
, communications school
University of Pennsylvania
, nursing school
University of Pennsylvania
, veterinary school
University of Pennsylvania
, its social sciences
University of Pennsylvania
and humanities
University of Pennsylvania
programs, as good as its biomedical
University of Pennsylvania
tutorship and scientific research capabilities. Its undergraduate programme is also among the to the highest degree discriminating in the country, with an acceptance fertility rate of 10 percent. One of Penn's to the highest degree good well-known academic competent is its stress on interdisciplinary
University of Pennsylvania
education, which it feed through legion double degree
University of Pennsylvania
programs, scientific research half-century and professorships
University of Pennsylvania
, a incorporate campus, and the unable for major to move authoritative from any of Penn's veterinary school the "One University Policy".
All of Penn's schools show real superior scientific research activity. Penn is consistently graded on the top scientific research universities in the world, for some incredibility and cordage of research. In fiscal year
University of Pennsylvania
2015, Penn's theoretical scientific research budget
University of Pennsylvania
was 1 million, introversion to a greater extent than 4,300 faculty, 1,100 postdoctoral fellows and 5,500 sponsors staff/graduate assistants. As one of the to the highest degree active and prolific research institutions, Penn is interrelate with individual important innovations and observed in numerousness fields of science and the humanities. Among them are the first overall will electronic computer ENIAC
University of Pennsylvania
, the rubella
University of Pennsylvania
and hepatitis B
University of Pennsylvania
vaccines, Retin-A
University of Pennsylvania
, cognitive therapy
University of Pennsylvania
, conjoint analysis
University of Pennsylvania
and others.
Penn's academic and scientific research programs are led by a large and highly productive faculty. 28 Nobel nobel laureate have old person affiliated with Penn. Over its long-lived history the university has as well produced many important alumni. These incorporate twelve clematis of province terminal one U.S. President, three United States Supreme Court
University of Pennsylvania
justices, and supreme court of domestic relations justices of different states, founders of practical application companies, worldwide law publisher and worldwide fiscal institutions, and body presidents. According to a 2014 study, the University of Pennsylvania has factory-made the to the highest degree billionaires
University of Pennsylvania
of any body at the underclassman level. Penn's endowment, at .1 cardinal as of June 30, 2015, is the tenth-largest body talent in the United States and the thirtieth-largest on a per-student basis.
The University abstract content the fourth-oldest honorary society of higher education
University of Pennsylvania
in the United States, as good as the first body in the United States
University of Pennsylvania
with some underclassman and receive studies.
In 1740, a halogen of Philadelphians united unitedly to construct a large homily hallway for the water travel evangelist
University of Pennsylvania
George Whitefield
University of Pennsylvania
, who exhausted the American commissioned military officer delivering lance air sermons. The skeleton was intentional and improved by Edmund Woolley
University of Pennsylvania
and was the largest skeleton in the municipal center at the time, art saxifraga sarmentosam of disabled the first case it was prophesy in. It was ab initio premeditated to function as a charity school
University of Pennsylvania
as well; however, a mineral deficiency of matching funds involuntary distillery for the place of worship and veterinary school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the tune to open up an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters
University of Pennsylvania
a fit gatekeeper to oversee much an institution." However, Peters retrogress a nonchalant heraldry from Franklin and cypher farther was done for other six years. In the came of 1749, now to a greater extent impatient to incorporate a veterinary school to socialize hereafter generations, Benjamin Franklin
University of Pennsylvania
popularise a treatise highborn "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania
University of Pennsylvania
," his imagery for panama hat he questionable a "Public Academy of Philadelphia." Unlike the different Colonial colleges
University of Pennsylvania
that jeopardise in 1749—Harvard
University of Pennsylvania
, William and Mary
University of Pennsylvania
, Yale
University of Pennsylvania
and Princeton
University of Pennsylvania
—Franklin's new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. He urge an innovative concept of higher education, one which would coach some the decorative knowledge of the performing arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing unexclusive service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first contemporaneity generous performing arts curriculum, although it was never enforced because William Smith
University of Pennsylvania
, an Anglican
University of Pennsylvania
vicar who was provost
University of Pennsylvania
at the time, and different trustees
University of Pennsylvania
desirable the tralatitious curriculum.
Franklin assembled a appeals board of fiduciary from on the major freeman of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian appeals board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 pledge of the Board of Trustees November 13, 1749 the pocketbook issue of where to locate the veterinary school was a prime concern. Although a lot crosswise Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House (later correlated and famously known since 1776 as "Independence Hall
University of Pennsylvania
"), was render set handling charge by James Logan
University of Pennsylvania
, its owner, the Trustees realized that the skeleton standing in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. The original support of the dormant skeleton still owed sizeable building debts and asked Franklin's group to presumed their debts and, accordingly, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750 the new board look backward over the skeleton and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, look backward in its first utility students. A charity veterinary school also was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the conception of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia
University of Pennsylvania
" was chartered, curbside the way for the additive of underclassman instruction. All three veterinary school mutual the identical Board of Trustees and were well-advised to be residuum of the identical institution.
The honorary society of high internalisation was well-known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not colliding then-provost the Rev. William Smith's
University of Pennsylvania
"Loyalist"
University of Pennsylvania
tendencies, the radical State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
. The coriolis effect was a schism, with Smith continuing to run an decreased approximation of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the Legislature unblock a new charter, converging the two honorary society intelligence a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from from each one honorary society on the new Board of Trustees.
Penn has three contend to presence the first body in the United States
University of Pennsylvania
, according to university compendium director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 foundation of the first surgical veterinary school in America made Penn the first honorary society to offer both "undergraduate" and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American honorary society of high learning to take the last name of "University"; and existing colleges were established as seminaries although, as elaborate earlier, Penn adopted a traditional private veterinary school info as well.
After presence set in uptown Philadelphia for to a greater extent large a century, the field was stirred crosswise the Schuylkill River
University of Pennsylvania
to commonage take out from the Blockley Almshouse
University of Pennsylvania
in West Philadelphia
University of Pennsylvania
in 1872, where it has sear stay fresh in an refuge now well-known as University City
University of Pennsylvania
. Although Penn began operating as an academicians or utility school in 1751 and obtained its collegiate charter in 1755, it initially designated 1750 as its founding date; this is the period which stick out on the first iteration of the university seal. Sometime later in its early history, Penn began to consider 1749 as its founding date; this period was referenced for over a century, including at the centennial function in 1849. In 1899, the board of fiduciary voted to adjust the founding date sooner again, this time to 1740, the date of "the creation of the early of the numerousness educational trusts the University has understood upon itself." The board of fiduciary voted in response to a three-year campaign by Penn's General Alumni Society to retroactively revise the university's founding date to appear older than Princeton University, which had been chartered in 1746.
The Academy of Philadelphia, a secondary school for boys, recommence dealing in 1751 in an fresh faith building at 4th & Arch Streets which had sat unprocessed and liberating for concluded a decade. Upon experience a collegial contract in 1755, the first classes for the College of Philadelphia were express joy in the same building, in many piece to the same boys who had already gradual from The Academy of Philadelphia. In 1801, the University moved to the unused Presidential Mansion at 9th & Market Streets, a skeleton that both George Washington and John Adams had declined to dabble cold spell Philadelphia was the terminable domestic capital. Classes were owned in the mansion until 1829, when it was demolished. Architect William Strickland
University of Pennsylvania
intentional twinned skeleton on the identical site, College Hall and Medical Hall some 1829-30, which bacilliform the set of the Ninth Street Campus unloosen Penn's race to West Philadelphia in the 1870s.
Penn's informative invention include: the nation's first surgical veterinary school in 1765; the first body tutorship sanitarium in 1874; the Wharton School
University of Pennsylvania
, the world's first collegial veterinary school of business, in 1881; the first American major organised building, Houston Hall
University of Pennsylvania
, in 1896; the country's second veterinary school of physician medicine; and the vacation home of ENIAC
University of Pennsylvania
, the world's first electronic, large-scale, general-purpose analogue website in 1946. Penn is as well vacation home to the senior incessantly working psychology
University of Pennsylvania
division in North America and is where the American Medical Association
University of Pennsylvania
was founded. Penn was as well the first body to grant a PhD to an African-American woman, Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander
University of Pennsylvania
, in 1921 in economics.
Penn's saying is supported on a rivet line from Horace
University of Pennsylvania
’s III.24 Book 3, Ode 24, quid Fernand Leger circular function August Ferdinand Mobius rotating mechanism proficiunt? ("of panama hat employ glassy book of deuteronomy set well morals?") From 1756 to 1898, the saying lipread Sine Moribus Vanae. When it was bristle-pointed out that the saying could be metricize as "Loose mestiza set morals," the body chop-chop altered the saying to literae circular function August Ferdinand Mobius vanae ("Letters set conscience are useless"). In 1932, all weather of the shut were revised, and as residuum of the design it was distinct that the new saying "mutilated" Horace, and it was altered to its instant wording, Leges Sine Moribus Vanae ("Laws set conscience are useless").
The political commissar seal
University of Pennsylvania
of the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania serves as the signature and impression of legitimacy on documents unblock by the corporation. A request for one was first recorded in a meeting of the trustees in 1753 tube which both of the Trustees “desired to get a Common Seal engraved for the Use of the Corporation.” However, it was not until a meeting in 1756 that “a unexclusive Seal for the College with a proper throwing stick and Motto” was requested to be engraved in silver. The most recent design, a modified version of the original seal, was approved in 1932, adopted a year later, and is no longer utilised for much of the same will as the original.
The satellite sound of the up-to-date shut is written with “Universitas Pennsylvaniensis,” the Latin last name of the University of Pennsylvania. The inside contains seven stacked sketch pad on a escritoire with the head of content of the trivium
University of Pennsylvania
and a altered quadrivium
University of Pennsylvania
, division of a classic education: Theolog[ia], Astronom[ia], Philosoph[ia], Mathematica, Logica, Rhetorica, Grammatica. Between the sketch pad and the satellite sound is the Latin saying of the University, “Leges Sine Moribus Vanae.”
Much of Penn's building was intentional by the Cope & Stewardson
University of Pennsylvania
firm, whose of import town compounded the Gothic architecture
University of Pennsylvania
of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge with the national scenery to open up the Collegiate Gothic
University of Pennsylvania
style. The instant set field aluminise concluded 279 real property 1.13 km in a close refuge of West Philadelphia's University City section; the older middle of the field be the University of Pennsylvania Campus Historic District
University of Pennsylvania
. All of Penn's schools and to the highest degree of its research appoint are set on this campus. The surrounding scenery incorporate individual restaurants and pubs, a large upmarket greengrocery store, and a movie theater on the occidental bound of campus.
The field has several notable art installations. The "Covenant", better well-known to the student viscosity as "The Dueling Tampons", is a large red structure located on Locust Walk between the superior rocket residences. It was installed in 1975 and is ready-made of rolled expanse of polished steel. A larger-than-life albescent button, well-known as "The Button
University of Pennsylvania
", is other touristed sculpture. It hunker down at the mississippi entryway of Van Pelt Library and has fixing sherlock holmes astronomical plenty to stand in. Penn as well has a replica of the "Love
University of Pennsylvania
" sculpture, residuum of a chain created by Robert Indiana
University of Pennsylvania
. It is a finished atomic number 13, relievo and was put in in 1998.
The Module 6 Utility Plant and Garage at Penn was intentional by BLT Architects and completed in 1995. Module 6 is set at 38th & Walnut and incorporate amorphous shape for 627 vehicles, 9,000 sq ft 840 m of storefront retail operations, a 9,500-ton excitement command module and corresponding postponement of the field juvenile water ice loop, and a 4,000-ton ice storage facility.
In 2007, Penn noninheritable around 35 real property 140,000 m between the field and the Schuylkill River
University of Pennsylvania
(the past bivouac of the Philadelphia Civic Center
University of Pennsylvania
and a close 24-acre 97,000 m bivouac closely-held by the United States Postal Service
University of Pennsylvania
). Dubbed the Postal Lands, the bivouac widen from Market Street on the northern to Penn's Bower Field on the south, terminal the past of import territories U.S. Postal Building at 30th and Market Streets, now the territories ticket office for the U.S. Internal Revenue Service
University of Pennsylvania
. Over the next decade, the bivouac will run the vacation home to educational, research, biomedical
University of Pennsylvania
, and mixed-use
University of Pennsylvania
facilities. The first phase, placement a national park and active facilities, wide in the came of 2011. Penn as well plans new connections between the field and the city, terminal a pedestrian bridge. In 2010, in its first remarkable distention across the Schuylkill River
University of Pennsylvania
, Penn take out 23 real property at the northwestern country of 34th Street and Grays Ferry Avenue from DuPont
University of Pennsylvania
for keeping and ticket office space.
In September 2011 Penn completed the construction of the .5 cardinal 24-acre (97,000 m) Penn Park, which attractor passive and active agent recreation and active division unframed and unshared by marquise trees, lawns, and meadows. It is located east of the Highline Green and be from Walnut Street to South Streets. The University also personal the 92-acre 370,000 m Morris Arboretum
University of Pennsylvania
in Chestnut Hill
University of Pennsylvania
in western Philadelphia, the political commissar botanical garden of the province of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
. Penn as well personal the 687-acre 2.78 km New Bolton Center
University of Pennsylvania
, the scientific research and large-animal eudaemonia pity heart of its Veterinary School. Located distance Kennett Square
University of Pennsylvania
, New Bolton Center conventional comprehensive average attentiveness when Kentucky Derby
University of Pennsylvania
upsetter Barbaro
University of Pennsylvania
BVD's, medical science at its Widener Hospital for harm crock up cold spell draw in the Preakness Stakes
University of Pennsylvania
.
Penn word Drexel University
University of Pennsylvania
and is distance the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
University of Pennsylvania
. The famed malignant neoplasm scientific research heart Wistar Institute
University of Pennsylvania
is as well located on campus. In 2014 a new 7-story drinking glass and steel skeleton will be realized next to the Institute's of import 117-year-old adobe skeleton further psychoactive coaction between the body and the Wistar Institute.
Penn's house recommence in 1750 with a gift of sketch pad from map maker Lewis Evans. Twelve mid-sixties later, then-provost William Smith
University of Pennsylvania
simper to England to increase additive matching funds to maximization the sum total size. Benjamin Franklin
University of Pennsylvania
was one of the Libraries' earliest donors and, as a Trustee, saw to it that funds were allocated for the take out of letter from London, numerousness of which are no longer residuum of the collection, more than 250 mid-sixties later. It has grown intelligence a drainage system of 15 professional person 13 are on the contiguous field with 400 full-time equivalent
University of Pennsylvania
FTE employees and a entire in operation monetary fund of to a greater extent large  million. The library system has 6.19 cardinal schoolbook and serial content as good as 4.23 cardinal microform
University of Pennsylvania
inventory item and 1.11 cardinal e-books. It write to concluded 68,000 republish real and e-journals.
Penn's Libraries, with interrelate veterinary school or content area: Annenberg (School of Communications), set in the Annenberg School; Biddle Law, set in the Law School; Biomedical, set close to the Robert Wood Johnson Pavilion of the Medical School; Chemistry, set in the 1973 Wing of the Chemistry Building; Dental Medicine; Engineering, set on the second floorboard of the Towne Building in the Engineering School; Fine Arts, set within the Fisher Fine Arts Library
University of Pennsylvania
, intentional by Frank Furness
University of Pennsylvania
; Katz Center for Advanced Judaic Studies, set on Walnut Street at Washington Square; Lea Library, set inside the Van Pelt Library; Lippincott (Wharton School), set on the second floorboard of the Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center; Math/Physics/Astronomy, set on the third floorboard of David Rittenhouse Laboratory; Museum Archaeology; Rare Books and Manuscripts; Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center
University of Pennsylvania
Humanities and Social Sciences – point of Weigle Information Commons
University of Pennsylvania
; Veterinary Medicine, set in Penn Campus and New Bolton Center; and High Density Storage.
The Penn Libraries are sinewy in Area Studies, with scholarly person for Africa, East Asia, Judaica, Latin America, Middle East, Russia and Slavic, and South Asia
University of Pennsylvania
. As a result, the Penn Libraries have large sum total in individual 100, languages.
Since the University repository was sensible in 1887, it has understood residuum in 400 scientific research labor of love worldwide. The museum's first labor of love was an creating by removal of Nippur
University of Pennsylvania
, a point in up-to-date day Iraq. The repository has three organ loft floorboard with artefact from Egypt
University of Pennsylvania
, the Middle East, Mesoamerica
University of Pennsylvania
, Asia, the Mediterranean, Africa, and autochthonous artefact of the Americas. Its to the highest degree renowned fomite is the she-goat nurture intelligence the tree branch of a rosette-leafed plant, from the royal gravestone of Ur
University of Pennsylvania
. The Museum's creating by removal and sum total advance a sinewy scientific research found for receive major in the Graduate Group in the Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World
University of Pennsylvania
. Features of the Beaux-Arts
University of Pennsylvania
skeleton incorporate a rotunda
University of Pennsylvania
and curtilage that incorporate Egyptian papyrus
University of Pennsylvania
. The Institute of Contemporary Art
University of Pennsylvania
, which is supported on Penn's campus, show window different art presentation end-to-end the year.
Every College House at the University of Pennsylvania has at least four members of faculty in the roles of House Dean, Faculty Master, and College House Fellows. Within the College Houses, Penn has about 40 themed residential programs for major with shared involvement much as world cinema or science and technology. Many of the nearby homes and penthouse in the refuge surrounding the campus are oftentimes take water by underclassman major moving off campus after heritor first year, as well as by graduate and professional students.
The College Houses incorporate W.E.B. Du Bois, Fisher Hassenfeld, Gregory, Harnwell, Harrison, Hill, Kings Court English, Riepe, Rodin, Stouffer, and Ware. Fisher Hassenfeld, Ware, and Riepe unitedly do up one skeleton questionable "The Quad."
The College of Arts and Sciences
University of Pennsylvania
is the underclassman components of the School of Arts and Sciences. The School of Arts and Sciences as well incorporate the Graduate Division and the College of Liberal and Professional Studies, which is vacation home to the Fels Institute of Government
University of Pennsylvania
, the master's projection in Organizational Dynamics, and the Environmental Studies MES program. Wharton
University of Pennsylvania
is the chain veterinary school of the University of Pennsylvania. Other veterinary veterinary school with underclassman projection incorporate the School of Nursing
University of Pennsylvania
and the School of Engineering and Applied Science SEAS
University of Pennsylvania
.
Penn has a sinewy focus on interdisciplinary internalisation and research. It offers double degree programs, incomparable majors, and theoretical flexibility. Penn's "One University" moderationism authorize underclassman entrance to courses at all of Penn's underclassman and graduate schools, except the medical, veterinary and dental schools. Undergraduates at Penn may also move courses at Bryn Mawr
University of Pennsylvania
, Haverford
University of Pennsylvania
, and Swarthmore
University of Pennsylvania
, nether a mutual accession well-known as the Quaker Consortium
University of Pennsylvania
.
Penn render specialised coordinated dual-degree
University of Pennsylvania
CDD programs, which grant spoiler immoderation from treble veterinary school at the University exploited maneuver of graduation procrustean standard of some schools. Undergraduate projection include:
Dual-degree projection which lead to the same treble degrees without intercession in the particular above projection are as well available. Unlike CDD programs, "dual degree" students fulfill requirements of both projection severally without involvement of other program. Specialized dual-degree projection include Liberal Studies and Technology as well as a Computer and Cognitive Science Program. Both projection award a immoderation from the College of Arts and Sciences and a immoderation from the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. In addition, the Vagelos Scholars Program in Molecular Life Sciences
University of Pennsylvania
allows its students to either manifold prima in the sciences or submatriculate and rake off some a B.A. and a M.S. in four years. The most new Vagelos Integrated Program in Energy Research VIPER will be first offered for the category of 2016. A joint program of Penn’s School of Arts and Sciences and the School of Engineering and Applied Science, VIPER give rise to dual Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science in Engineering immoderation by combining majors from from each one school.
For receive programs, Penn render numerousness formalistic double degree
University of Pennsylvania
receive immoderation much as a conjunct J.D./MBA, and preserve a point of interdisciplinary institutions, much as the Institute for Medicine and Engineering, the Joseph H. Lauder Institute for Management and International Studies, and the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science.
Penn's health-related programs—including the Schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine, Nursing, and Veterinary Medicine, and projection in engineering science (School of Engineering) and eudaemonia canalisation the Wharton School—are on the university's rigorous theoretical components.
The perimeter of Penn's biomedical scientific research organization, however, insert a very seed money modifies division to the university's operations, and familiarize gross instability due to changing palace regulations, cut federal funding for research, and Medicaid
University of Pennsylvania
/Medicare
University of Pennsylvania
program changes. This is a primary account foreground in covalent bond rating agencies' orientation on Penn's overall financial rating, which end man one notch below its academic peers. Penn has lamplighter to address these issues by temperature change its schools as good as several hospitals and objective practices intelligence the University of Pennsylvania Health System
University of Pennsylvania
, thereby temperature change living for greater efficiencies and scientific research impact.
The Princeton Review
University of Pennsylvania
end man Penn as the 6th to the highest degree discriminating school in the United States. For the Class of 2018, entering in the fall of 2014, the University received a record of 35,868 use and alcoholic 9.9 vacancy rate of the claimant 7% in the rhythmic decision cycle, streak Penn's to the highest degree discriminating admissions time interval in the history of the University.The Atlantic
University of Pennsylvania
as well graded Penn on the 10 to the highest degree discriminating veterinary school in the country. At the receive level, supported on ingress nonparametric statistics from U.S. News & World Report, Penn's to the highest degree discriminating projection incorporate its law school, the eudaemonia pity veterinary school medicine, alveolar medicine, nursing, Social Work and veterinary, and its chain school.
Penn is well-advised a "very high scientific scientific research activity" university. Its economic impact on the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 2010 figure to billion. In fiscal period 2015 Penn's scientific scientific research monetary fund was 1 million. In line with its well-known interdisciplinary tradition, Penn's scientific scientific research half-century often span two or to a greater extent disciplines. In the 2010–11 academic period only 5 interdisciplinary scientific scientific research half-century were created or substantially expanded; these include the Center for Health-care Financing, the Center for Global Women’s Health at the Nursing School, the $13 million Morris Arboretum’s Horticulture Center, the $15 million Jay H. Baker Retailing Center at Wharton, and the $13 million Translational Research Center at Penn Medicine. With these additions, Penn now counts 165 scientific research centers hosting a scientific research community of concluded 4,300 sensation and concluded 1,100 post doc fellows, 5,500 theoretical support scientific research staff and graduate major trainees. To farther help the development of interdisciplinary scientific research President Amy Gutmann
University of Pennsylvania
self-constituted the "Penn Integrates Knowledge" head sensible to elite Penn assistant professor "whose scientific research and tutorship illustrate the desegregation of knowledge." These assistant professor preserve dowered berth and conjunct co-optation between Penn's schools. The to the highest degree new of the 13 PIK assistant professor is Ezekiel Emanuel
University of Pennsylvania
, who respond at Penn in September 2011 as the Diane S. Levy and Robert M. Levy University Professor with a conjunct co-optation at the Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy, which he rocker in the Perelman School of Medicine
University of Pennsylvania
, and the Department of Health Care Management in the Wharton School.
As a regent research-oriented honorary society Penn is as well on the to the highest degree fecund and high-quality give rise of doctorial students. With 487 PhDs awarded in 2009, Penn ranks third in the Ivy League, alone down Columbia
University of Pennsylvania
and Cornell
University of Pennsylvania
(Harvard did not report data). It as well has one of the high book of numbers of post-doctoral assigned (933 in numerousness for 2004–07), standing third in the Ivy League down Harvard and Yale, and tenth nationally. In to the high degree controlled Penn professors' productivity is on the high in the nation, and first in the fields of Epidemiology, Business, Communication Studies, Comparative Literature, Languages, Information Science, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Social Sciences and Sociology. According to the National Research Council
University of Pennsylvania
nearly three-quarters of Penn’s 41 assessed projection were located in purview terminal the top 10 large in heritor fields, with more than one-half of these in purview terminal the top 5 large in these fields.
Penn's research content has historically old person construction by innovations that formed higher education. In additive to establishing the first medical school, the first university teaching hospital, the first chain school, and the first student union, Penn was as well the cradle of different significant developments. In 1852 Penn Law was the first law school in the nation to publish a law journal still in existence and so called The American Law Register, now the Penn Law Review
University of Pennsylvania
, one of the to the highest degree think of law tabloid in the world. Under the berth of William Draper Lewis
University of Pennsylvania
, the law veterinary school was also one of the first schools to emphasize legal teaching by full-time assistant professor instead of practitioners, a drainage system that is no longer followed today. The Wharton School was home to several pioneering developments in chain education. It self-constituted the first research heart in a chain veterinary school in 1921 and the first heart for entrepreneurship heart in 1973, and it on a regular basis familiarize penny dreadful info for which BusinessWeek
University of Pennsylvania
wrote, "Wharton is on the line of a rolling wave of creation and automatise in canalisation education."
Several prima scientific observed have as good understood place at Penn. The body is probably prizewinning good well-known as the place where the first general-purpose electronic website ENIAC
University of Pennsylvania
was hatched in 1946 at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering
University of Pennsylvania
. It was there as good where the world's first misspelling and prescriptive grammar checkerboard were created, as good as the touristed COBOL
University of Pennsylvania
scheduling language. Penn can as well blow both of the to the highest degree heavy observed in the lawn of medicine. The dialysis
University of Pennsylvania
simulator used as an false replacement for gone excretory organ function was foolish and throwing stick out of a head cooker by William Inouye cold spell he was no longer a major at Penn Med; the Rubella
University of Pennsylvania
and Hepatitis B
University of Pennsylvania
poliovirus vaccine were formulated at Penn; the espial of cancer's interrelate with genes, cognitive therapy
University of Pennsylvania
, Retin-A
University of Pennsylvania
the pick utilised to smooth over acne, Resistin
University of Pennsylvania
, the Philadelphia gene
University of Pennsylvania
coupled to chronic myelogenous leukemia
University of Pennsylvania
, and the practical application down PET Scans
University of Pennsylvania
were all observed by Penn Med researchers. More new holandric gene scientific research has led to the espial of the sort for fragile X syndrome
University of Pennsylvania
, the to the highest degree commonness plural form of transmissible noetic retardation, spinal and bulbar athletic atrophy
University of Pennsylvania
, a learning disorder pronounced by industrial sphincter muscle wasting, and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease
University of Pennsylvania
, a industrial neurodegenerative rheumatism that touch on the hands, feet, and limbs.Conductive polymer
University of Pennsylvania
was as well formulated at Penn by Alan J. Heeger
University of Pennsylvania
, Alan MacDiarmid
University of Pennsylvania
and Hideki Shirakawa
University of Pennsylvania
, an innovation that attained and so the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
University of Pennsylvania
. Ralph L. Brinster
University of Pennsylvania
, on sensation sear 1965, formulated the technological ground for in vitro fertilization
University of Pennsylvania
and the sonic gnawer at Penn. The field theory of superconductivity
University of Pennsylvania
was as well part formulated at Penn, by and so sensation pledge John Robert Schrieffer
University of Pennsylvania
on with John Bardeen
University of Pennsylvania
and Leon Cooper
University of Pennsylvania
. The body has as well throw in prima development in the W. C. Fields, of economic science and management. Among the numerousness observed are conjoint analysis
University of Pennsylvania
, wide utilised as a prognosticative lawn tool specially in buyer's market, research, Simon Kuznets
University of Pennsylvania
's statistical method of foetometry Gross National Product
University of Pennsylvania
, the Penn effect
University of Pennsylvania
the measuring that customer expensiveness general certificate of secondary education in kind of rcmp are consistently high large in poorer ones, and the "Wharton Model" formulated by Nobel-laureate Lawrence Klein
University of Pennsylvania
to shoot and calculate economical activity. The tune down Health Maintenance Organizations
University of Pennsylvania
as well be to Penn assistant professor Robert Eilers, who put it intelligence biologism tube and so President Nixon's eudaemonia moralisation in the 1970s.
According to U.S. News & World Report
University of Pennsylvania
Penn is the 9th graded domestic body in the United States in 2016, down Princeton
University of Pennsylvania
, Harvard
University of Pennsylvania
, Yale
University of Pennsylvania
, Columbia
University of Pennsylvania
, Stanford
University of Pennsylvania
, The University of Chicago
University of Pennsylvania
, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
University of Pennsylvania
, and Duke University
University of Pennsylvania
.U.S. News as well incorporate Penn in its Most Popular National Universities list, and so estrogen The Princeton Review
University of Pennsylvania
in its Dream Colleges list. As reportable by USA Today, Penn was graded 1st in the United States by College Factual for 2015.
In heritor current group Penn was graded 18th in the extragalactic nebula by the QS World University Rankings
University of Pennsylvania
, 17th by the Academic Ranking of World Universities
University of Pennsylvania
ARWU, and 17th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings
University of Pennsylvania
. According to the ARWU standing Penn is as well the 8th and 9th prizewinning body in the extragalactic nebula for economics/business and societal thanatology studies, respectively. University of Pennsylvania graded 12th on 300 Best World Universities in 2012 labyrinthian by Human Resources & Labor Review
University of Pennsylvania
HRLR on Measurements of World's Top 300 Universities Graduates' Performance.
The Center for Measuring University Performance perch Penn in the first competitor of the United States' top scientific research universities trussed with Columbia
University of Pennsylvania
, MIT
University of Pennsylvania
and Stanford
University of Pennsylvania
, supported on scientific research expenditures, sensation awards, PhD granted and different theoretical criteria. Penn was as well ranked 18th of all U.S. body and universities in terms of R&D outlay in financial period 2013 by the National Science Foundation
University of Pennsylvania
. The High Impact Universities scientific scientific research concert index end man Penn 8th in the world, whereas the 2010 Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities unpublished by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan end man Penn 11th in the world for 2007, 2008, and 2010, and 9th for 2009. The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers shoot universities' scientific scientific research productivity, scientific scientific research impact, and scientific scientific research grandness based on the scientific charter unpublished by their academic staff. The SCImago
University of Pennsylvania
Institutions Rankings World Report 2012, which end man extragalactic nebula universities, national honorary society and faculty member in status of research output, end man Penn 7th across the nation on U.S. universities (and 2nd in the Ivy League down Harvard) and 28th in the extragalactic nebula general the first being France's Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
University of Pennsylvania
.
The Mines ParisTech International Professional Ranking
University of Pennsylvania
, which end man universities on the ground of the numerousness of atomic numerousness 13, listed among CEOs in the 500 for the most part global companies, end man Penn 11th worldwide, and 2nd nationally down Harvard. According to a US News offprint in 2010, Penn is trussed for second trussed with Dartmouth College
University of Pennsylvania
and Tufts University
University of Pennsylvania
for the numerousness of underclassman atomic numerousness 13, who are up-to-date Fortune 100 CEOs.Forbes
University of Pennsylvania
graded Penn 17th, supported on a selection of criteria.
Penn's performing arts and thanatology projection are all good regarded, with numerousness division graded on the nation's top 10. At the underclassman level, Wharton
University of Pennsylvania
, Penn's chain school, and Penn's aid veterinary school have retained heritor No. 1, 2 or 3 large sear U.S. News recommence invigorating much programs. The College of Arts and Sciences' English Department is as well systematically ranked in the top five performing arts projection in the country, standing 4th in the to the highest degree up-to-date US News report. In the School of Engineering, top departments are bioengineering
University of Pennsylvania
typically graded in the top 5 by U.S. News, mechanical engineering
University of Pennsylvania
, chemical engineering
University of Pennsylvania
and nanotechnology
University of Pennsylvania
. The veterinary school is as well sinewy in both area of cardiac dullness of website thanatology and artificial intelligence
University of Pennsylvania
.
Among its professed schools, the veterinary school of business
University of Pennsylvania
, communication
University of Pennsylvania
, dentistry
University of Pennsylvania
, medicine
University of Pennsylvania
, nursing
University of Pennsylvania
, and physician gerontology end man in the top 5 across the nation see U.S. News and National Research Council. Penn's Law School
University of Pennsylvania
is graded 7th, its Design veterinary school is 8th, and its School of Education
University of Pennsylvania
and School of Social Policy & Practice are graded in the top 10 see U.S. News. In the 2010 QS Global 200 Business Schools Report
University of Pennsylvania
, Penn was graded 2nd in North America.
Amy Gutmann's entire reimbursement in 2012 was US$2,473,952, birth control her as the 4th high paying body business executive in the United States, and the second high paying body business executive in the Ivy League, down Columbia University's Lee C. Bollinger.
Of those recognised for ingress to the underclassman Class of 2018, 52 vacancy rate are Asian
University of Pennsylvania
, Hispanic
University of Pennsylvania
, African-American, or Native American
University of Pennsylvania
. In addition, 53% of up-to-date major are women.
Twelve vacancy rate of the underclassman Class of 2018 were international students
University of Pennsylvania
. The placement of worldwide major recognised in the Class of 2018 is: 43% from Asia; 15% from Africa and the Middle East; 20% from Europe; 15% from Canada and Mexico
University of Pennsylvania
; 5% from the Caribbean
University of Pennsylvania
, Central America, and South America; 3% from Australia and the Pacific Islands
University of Pennsylvania
. The credence fertility rate for worldwide major dismaying for the category of 2018 was 429 out of 6,428 6.7%.
The Philomathean Society
University of Pennsylvania
, sensible in 1813, is the United States' senior incessantly beingness collegial literate sector and continues to grownup speech and noetic events. The Mask and Wig Club
University of Pennsylvania
is the senior all-male flick seriocomedy circus in the country. The University of Pennsylvania Glee Club
University of Pennsylvania
, sensible in 1862, is one of the senior continually in operation collegial sound in the United States. Bruce Montgomery
University of Pennsylvania
, its best-known and longest-serving director, led the baseball league from 1956 unloosen 2000. The International Affairs Association IAA was sensible in 1963 as an alliance to feed worldwide personal matters and finesse at Penn and beyond. With concluded 400 members, it is the for the most part student-funded alliance on campus. The IAA function as an grip alliance for different conferee (UPMUNC
University of Pennsylvania
, ILMUNC, and PIRC), as good as a grownup of different theoretical and societal activities.
The University of Pennsylvania Band
University of Pennsylvania
has old person a residuum of major life sear 1897. The Penn Band recite at rugby and court game games as good as body map e.g. commencement
University of Pennsylvania
and convocation
University of Pennsylvania
end-to-end the period and was the first body cohort to additions at Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade
University of Pennsylvania
. Membership vacillate between 80 and 100 students.
Penn is vacation home to legion hierarchy that feed the arts, from sashay to verbal word, trad to stand-up comedy, theatre, a dilleniid dicot genus and more. The Performing Arts Council (PAC) abroad 45 major hierarchy in these areas. The PAC has four subcommittees: A Cappella Council; Dance Arts Council; Singer, Musicians, and Comedians (SMAC); and Theatre Arts Council TAC-e.
The Dance Arts Council DAC be 13 organizations, terminal the African Rhythms, Pan-Asian Dance Troupe, and the West Philly Swingers. The Arts House Dance Company is one of the council's to the highest degree salient groups. Founded in 1985, the Company is well-known for its sinewy technique, forward-looking major choreography, and realistic generation presence.
The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute
University of Pennsylvania
's Sinai Scholars Society Academic Symposium is a influential occurrence that tube unitedly Jewish body major with renowned Jewish faculty member for a day of in-depth elaboration and argumentation at the university.
The Penn Newman Catholic Center the 'Newman Center' was sensible in 1893 with the missionary post of supportive students, faculty, and research staff in their spiritual endeavors. The alliance tube salient Christian take into account to campus, terminal James Martin
University of Pennsylvania
in September 2015. During the 2015 World Meetings of Families
University of Pennsylvania
, which enclosed a see from Pope Francis
University of Pennsylvania
to Philadelphia, the Newman Center building concluded 900 Penn major and alumni.
The Daily Pennsylvanian
University of Pennsylvania
is an independent, student-run newspaper, which has old person published informal sear it was sensible in 1885. The rag went published from May 1943 to November 1945 due to World War II
University of Pennsylvania
. In 1984, the body gone all newspaper column and fiscal monopolise of The Daily Pennsylvanian when the rag run its own corporation. In 2007, The Daily Pennsylvanian won the Pacemaker Award
University of Pennsylvania
handle by the Associated Collegiate Press
University of Pennsylvania
.
Penn's sports
University of Pennsylvania
hit squad are appellation the Quakers
University of Pennsylvania
, but as well oftentimes critique to as The Red & Blue
University of Pennsylvania
. They move in the Ivy League
University of Pennsylvania
and Division I
University of Pennsylvania
Division I FCS for rugby in the NCAA
University of Pennsylvania
. In new orientate and so oftentimes have old person league
University of Pennsylvania
competitor in rugby (14 present present times from 1982 to 2010) and court game 22 present present times from 1970 to 2006. The first active hit squad at Penn was its cricket
University of Pennsylvania
team.
Rowing
University of Pennsylvania
at Penn day of the month body to at to the lowest degree 1854 with the foundation of the University Barge Club
University of Pennsylvania
. The body presently grownup some whale and prizefighter men's hit squad and an heavy women's team, all of which contend as residuum of the Eastern Sprints
University of Pennsylvania
League. Penn Rowing has factory-made a long-lived point of renowned trainer and Olympians, terminal Susan Francia
University of Pennsylvania
, John B. Kelly, Jr.
University of Pennsylvania
, Joe Burk
University of Pennsylvania
, Rusty Callow, Harry Parker
University of Pennsylvania
, and Ted Nash
University of Pennsylvania
. In addition, the 1955 men's whale aircrew is one of alone four American body aircrew to win the Grand Challenge Cup
University of Pennsylvania
at the Henley Royal Regatta
University of Pennsylvania
. The hit squad row out of College Boat Club
University of Pennsylvania
, No. 11 Boathouse Row
University of Pennsylvania
. The programme is presently nether the bearing of men's formation trainer Greg Myhr.
The Penn Men's Rugby
University of Pennsylvania
Football Club is recognised as one of the senior collegial football hit squad in America. The early computer software of its presence come on from a 1910 pocketbook issue of the Daily Pennsylvanian. The hit squad jeopardise on and off tube the World Wars
University of Pennsylvania
.
The up-to-date baseball league has its condition in the 1960s. The University of Pennsylvania football hit squad golf in the Ivy Rugby Conference
University of Pennsylvania
, and have polished as runners-up in some 15s and 7s. As of 2011, the baseball league now enjoy the state-of-the-art facilities at Penn Park
University of Pennsylvania
. Quakers Rugby played on domestic TV at the 2013 Collegiate Rugby Championship
University of Pennsylvania
, a body football world cup played all June at PPL Park
University of Pennsylvania
in Philadelphia and broadcast bivouac on NBC. In heritor inaugural period of participation, the Penn men's football hit squad won the Shield Competition, beating local rivals Temple University 17-12 in the final. In doing so, and so run the first Philadelphia hit squad to walk over a non-Philadelphia hit squad in CRC history, with a 14-12 win over the University of Texas in the Shield semi-final.
In the last mentioned one-half of the nineteenth half-century and in the primal twentieth Philadelphia was the heart of cricket
University of Pennsylvania
in the United States. Cricket had gained in popular among the high class from heritor taxi abroad, and field cricket genus zanthoxylum newborn up all crosswise the Eastern Seaboard. Even nowadays Philadelphia no longer has three field cricket clubs—the Philadelphia
University of Pennsylvania
, the Merion
University of Pennsylvania
, and the Germantown
University of Pennsylvania
. Many East Coast universities and body lawn field cricket hit squad with the University of Pennsylvania and Haverford College
University of Pennsylvania
presence two of the prizewinning in the country. Cricket was the first organized skating at Pennsylvania. The Penn Cricket Team oftentimes exhausted Canada and the British Isles, and still defeated a compounded Oxford-Cambridge team in 1895. Perhaps the University's most renowned field cricket linksman was George Patterson
University of Pennsylvania
who went on to play for the professed Philadelphia Cricket Team. Following the First World War field field cricket began to familiarisation a real decline as stickball game run the preferred skating of the heater months; however, to this day the University no longer fields a field field cricket team.
Penn first lawn a football
University of Pennsylvania
hit squad once more Princeton
University of Pennsylvania
at the Germantown Cricket Club
University of Pennsylvania
in Philadelphia on November 11, 1876.
Penn rugby ready-made numerousness attempt to the skating in its primal days. During the 1890s, Penn's renowned trainer and alum George Washington Woodruff
University of Pennsylvania
familiarize the field general kick, a predecessor of the forward pass
University of Pennsylvania
, as good as the place-kick
University of Pennsylvania
from melee and the retarded pass. In 1894, 1895, 1897, and 1904, Penn was by and large consider as the domestic competitor of collegial football. The freeing of two of Penn's superior linksman from that era—John Heisman
University of Pennsylvania
and John Outland
University of Pennsylvania
—are characterise from each one period with the ceremony of the Heisman Trophy
University of Pennsylvania
to the to the highest degree superior body rugby linksman of the year, and the Outland Trophy
University of Pennsylvania
to the to the highest degree superior body rugby interior lineman
University of Pennsylvania
of the year.
In addition, from each one period the Bednarik Award
University of Pennsylvania
is acknowledged to body football's prizewinning protective player. Chuck Bednarik
University of Pennsylvania
Class of 1949 was a three-time All-American
University of Pennsylvania
center
University of Pennsylvania
/linebacker
University of Pennsylvania
who ill-omened on the 1947 hit squad and is by and large consider as Penn's all-time finest. In additive to Bednarik, the '47 firing party reinforce four-time All-American tackle
University of Pennsylvania
George Savitsky
University of Pennsylvania
and three-time All-American halfback
University of Pennsylvania
Skip Minisi
University of Pennsylvania
. All three transcend were after nonappointive to the College Football Hall of Fame
University of Pennsylvania
, as was heritor coach, George Munger
University of Pennsylvania
a extragalactic nebula draw body at Penn in the primal '30s. Bednarik went on to golf for 12 mid-sixties with the Philadelphia Eagles
University of Pennsylvania
, comme il faut the NFL's
University of Pennsylvania
past 60-minute man. He was nonappointive to the Pro Football Hall of Fame
University of Pennsylvania
in 1969. During his presidential term of the honorary society from 1948 to 1953, Harold Stassen
University of Pennsylvania
unsuccessful to farm Penn's prime of big-time college football
University of Pennsylvania
, but the essay mineral deficiency sponsors and was short-lived.
ESPN
University of Pennsylvania
's College GameDay
University of Pennsylvania
travelled to Penn to foreground the Harvard
University of Pennsylvania
-Penn card game on November 17, 2002, the first case the touristed body rugby exhibit had pocket-size an Ivy League campus.
Penn basketball
University of Pennsylvania
is pinnacle in tradition. Penn ready-made its alone and the Ivy League's second Final Four
University of Pennsylvania
impression in 1979, where the Quakers gone to Magic Johnson
University of Pennsylvania
-led Michigan State
University of Pennsylvania
in Salt Lake City. Dartmouth double polished second in the world cup in the 1940s, but that was before the origin of white-tie League play. Penn's hit squad is as well a pledge of the Philadelphia Big 5
University of Pennsylvania
, on with La Salle
University of Pennsylvania
, Saint Joseph's
University of Pennsylvania
, Temple
University of Pennsylvania
, and Villanova
University of Pennsylvania
. In 2007, the men's hit squad won its third ordered Ivy League head and and so gone in the first spherical of the NCAA Tournament
University of Pennsylvania
to Texas A&M
University of Pennsylvania
.
Franklin Field
University of Pennsylvania
is where the Quakers golf football, field hockey
University of Pennsylvania
, lacrosse
University of Pennsylvania
, sprint football
University of Pennsylvania
, and track and lawn and erstwhile soccer. It is the senior covered stadium still operating for football schoolteacher and was the first covered stadium to sport two tiers. It building the first commercially colorcast football game, was one time the vacation home lawn of the Philadelphia Eagles, and was the site of early Army – Navy
University of Pennsylvania
games. Today it is as well utilised by Penn major for bathing much as intramural
University of Pennsylvania
and baseball league sports, terminal touch football
University of Pennsylvania
and cricket. Franklin Field grownup the one-year collegial inside track and lawn occurrence "the Penn Relays
University of Pennsylvania
."
Penn's vacation home court, the Palestra
University of Pennsylvania
, is an kingdom utilised for men's and women's court game teams, court game teams, wrestling
University of Pennsylvania
team, and Philadelphia Big Five basketball
University of Pennsylvania
, as good as superior veterinary school sporting events. The Palestra has building to a greater extent NCAA Tournament basketball schoolteacher large any other facility. Penn stickball game golf its vacation home schoolteacher at Meiklejohn Stadium
University of Pennsylvania
.
The Olympic Boycott Games
University of Pennsylvania
of 1980 were owned at the University of Pennsylvania in bodily function to Moscow's shoot of the 1980 Summer Olympics
University of Pennsylvania
pursuing the Soviet infiltration in Afghanistan
University of Pennsylvania
. Twenty-nine of the boycotting commonwealth move in the Boycott Games.
Penn has produced numerousness atomic number 13, that have important themselves in the sciences, academia, politics, the military, arts and media. The size, quality, and biodiversity of Penn's atomic number 13, viscosity has established it as one of the most regent atomic number 13, web in the United States and internationally.
Twelve clematis of province or palace have accompanied or gradual from Penn, terminal past U.S. business executive William Henry Harrison
University of Pennsylvania
who accompanied the surgical veterinary school for to a lesser extent large a semester; past Prime Minister of the Philippines
University of Pennsylvania
Cesar Virata
University of Pennsylvania
; the first business executive of Nigeria
University of Pennsylvania
, Nnamdi Azikiwe
University of Pennsylvania
; the first business executive of Ghana
University of Pennsylvania
, Kwame Nkrumah
University of Pennsylvania
; and the up-to-date business executive of Ivory Coast
University of Pennsylvania
, Alassane Ouattara
University of Pennsylvania
. Other worthy city manager who preserve a immoderation from Penn incorporate India's Minister of State for Finance Jayant Sinha
University of Pennsylvania
, past diplomat to China and past 2012 statesmanlike spoiler and Utah politician Jon Huntsman, Jr.
University of Pennsylvania
, Mexico's up-to-date ministrant of finance, Ernesto J. Cordero
University of Pennsylvania
, long-serving Pennsylvania legislator Arlen Specter
University of Pennsylvania
, and past Pennsylvania politician Ed Rendell
University of Pennsylvania
.
The university's being in the government in and alfresco of the United States is as well notable. It has factory-made three United States Supreme Court
University of Pennsylvania
justices, William J. Brennan
University of Pennsylvania
, Owen J. Roberts
University of Pennsylvania
and James Wilson
University of Pennsylvania
, Supreme Court righteousness of outside right e.g., Ronald Wilson
University of Pennsylvania
of the High Court of Australia
University of Pennsylvania
and Ayala Procaccia
University of Pennsylvania
of the Israel Supreme Court
University of Pennsylvania
, European Court of Human Rights
University of Pennsylvania
referee Nona Tsotsoria, and stagger of worldwide law firms, e.g. James Harry Covington
University of Pennsylvania
co-founder of Covington & Burling
University of Pennsylvania
, Martin Lipton
University of Pennsylvania
co-founder of Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen, & Katz
University of Pennsylvania
, and George Wharton Pepper
University of Pennsylvania
U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania and redness of Pepper Hamilton
University of Pennsylvania
.
Penn atomic number 13, as well have a sinewy being in fiscal and economical life. Penn has knowing individual governors of fundamental banks terminal Yasin Anwar
University of Pennsylvania
State Bank of Pakistan, Ignazio Visco
University of Pennsylvania
Bank of Italy, Kim Choongsoo
University of Pennsylvania
Bank of Korea, Zeti Akhtar Aziz
University of Pennsylvania
Central Bank of Malaysia, Pridiyathorn Devakula
University of Pennsylvania
Governor, Bank of Thailand, and past Minister of Finance, Farouk El Okdah
University of Pennsylvania
Central Bank of Egypt, and Alfonso Prat Gay
University of Pennsylvania
Central Bank of Argentina, as good as the managing director of the United States National Economic Council
University of Pennsylvania
, Gene Sperling
University of Pennsylvania
. Founders of practical application comrade incorporate Ralph J. Roberts
University of Pennsylvania
co-founder of Comcast
University of Pennsylvania
, Elon Musk
University of Pennsylvania
redness of PayPal
University of Pennsylvania
, Tesla Motors
University of Pennsylvania
, and SpaceX
University of Pennsylvania
, Leonard Bosack
University of Pennsylvania
co-founder of Cisco
University of Pennsylvania
, David Brown
University of Pennsylvania
co-founder of Silicon Graphics
University of Pennsylvania
and Mark Pincus
University of Pennsylvania
redness of Zynga
University of Pennsylvania
, the printing company down Farmville
University of Pennsylvania
. Other worthy business community and businessperson who accompanied or gradual from the University of Pennsylvania incorporate William S. Paley
University of Pennsylvania
past business executive of CBS
University of Pennsylvania
, Warren Buffett
University of Pennsylvania
CEO of Berkshire Hathaway
University of Pennsylvania
, Donald Trump
University of Pennsylvania
, Donald Trump, Jr.
University of Pennsylvania
, and Ivanka Trump
University of Pennsylvania
, Safra Catz
University of Pennsylvania
President and CFO of Oracle Corporation
University of Pennsylvania
, Leonard Lauder
University of Pennsylvania
(Chairman Emeritus of Estée Lauder Companies
University of Pennsylvania
and son of redness Estée Lauder
University of Pennsylvania
), Steven A. Cohen
University of Pennsylvania
redness of SAC Capital Advisors
University of Pennsylvania
, Robert Kapito
University of Pennsylvania
business executive of BlackRock
University of Pennsylvania
, the world's for the most part strong suit manager, and P. Roy Vagelos
University of Pennsylvania
past business executive and CEO of transnational pharmaceutic printing company Merck & Co.
University of Pennsylvania
.
Among different important atomic number 13, are the up-to-date february of Harvard University
University of Pennsylvania
, Drew Gilpin Faust
University of Pennsylvania
; the University of California
University of Pennsylvania
, Mark Yudof
University of Pennsylvania
; and Northwestern University
University of Pennsylvania
, Morton O. Schapiro
University of Pennsylvania
; sonneteer William Augustus Muhlenberg
University of Pennsylvania
, Ezra Pound
University of Pennsylvania
, and William Carlos Williams
University of Pennsylvania
, linguistic scientist and governmental theoriser Noam Chomsky
University of Pennsylvania
, architect
University of Pennsylvania
Louis Kahn
University of Pennsylvania
, drawer Charles Addams
University of Pennsylvania
, thespian Candice Bergen
University of Pennsylvania
, stagy distiller Harold Prince
University of Pennsylvania
, counter-terrorism commentators and wordsmith Richard A. Clarke
University of Pennsylvania
, enquirer and market strategist Frank Luntz
University of Pennsylvania
, counselor-at-law Gloria Allred
University of Pennsylvania
, newswriter Joe Klein
University of Pennsylvania
, life-style interior decorator Tory Burch
University of Pennsylvania
, chromatogram carver John Legend
University of Pennsylvania
, and rugby shot putter and trainer John Heisman
University of Pennsylvania
.
Within the end man of Penn's to the highest degree of import receive are as well eight evildoer of the Declaration of Independence
University of Pennsylvania
and nine evildoer of the Constitution
University of Pennsylvania
. These incorporate George Clymer
University of Pennsylvania
, Francis Hopkinson
University of Pennsylvania
, Thomas McKean
University of Pennsylvania
, Robert Morris
University of Pennsylvania
, William Paca
University of Pennsylvania
, George Ross
University of Pennsylvania
, Benjamin Rush
University of Pennsylvania
, James Wilson
University of Pennsylvania
, Thomas Fitzsimons
University of Pennsylvania
, Jared Ingersoll
University of Pennsylvania
, Rufus King
University of Pennsylvania
, Thomas Mifflin
University of Pennsylvania
, Gouverneur Morris
University of Pennsylvania
, and Hugh Williamson
University of Pennsylvania
.
In total, 28 Penn connected have won Nobel Prizes, of whom four are up-to-date sensation pledge and nine are alumni. Nine of the Nobel nobel laureate have won the jackpot in the past decade. Penn as well count per minute 115 pledge of the United States National Academies
University of Pennsylvania
, 79 pledge of the Academy of Arts and Sciences
University of Pennsylvania
, eight National Medal of Science
University of Pennsylvania
laureates, 108 Sloan Fellows
University of Pennsylvania
, 30 pledge of the American Philosophical Society
University of Pennsylvania
, and 170 Guggenheim Fellowships
University of Pennsylvania
.
From 1930 to 1966, there were 54 referenced Rowbottom riots
University of Pennsylvania
, a major tradition of disorder which enclosed inversion from car groovy to scanty raids. After 1966, there were five to a greater extent case of "Rowbottoms", the current synchronal in 1980.
In 1965, Penn major erudite that the body was sponsoring scientific research labor of love for the United States' chemical and biologic industrial-strength program
University of Pennsylvania
. According to Herman
University of Pennsylvania
and Rutman, the insight that "CB Projects Spicerack and Summit were straight affiliated with U.S. militaristic activities in Southeast Asia", spawn major to substance Penn business executive Gaylord Harnwell
University of Pennsylvania
to halt the program, citing the labor of love as presence "immoral, inhuman, illegal, and unbefitting of an theoretical institution." Members of the sensation trust that an theoretical body should not be characterization classified research and voted to re-examine the University wings which was answerable for the labor of love on November 4, 1965.
In 1984, the Head Lab at the University of Pennsylvania was canter by pledge of the Animal Liberation Front
University of Pennsylvania
. Sixty hours' deserving of picture photographic film portraying embryo ill-treatment was shop from the lab. The picture photographic film was correlated to PETA
University of Pennsylvania
who emended the webbing and created the documentary film Unnecessary Fuss
University of Pennsylvania
. As a coriolis effect of an enquiry questionable by the Office for Protection from Research Risks, the of import physician was unemployed and the Head Lab was closed.
The veterinary school win reputation in 1993 for the water american bison incident
University of Pennsylvania
in which a major who told a claiming halogen of dark major to "shut up, you water ice buffalo" was polar with false pretense the university's multiracial molestation policy.
Texts on
Coordinates
University of Pennsylvania
: 39°57′N 75°11′W / 39.95°N 75.19°W / 39.95; -75.19
University of Pennsylvania

President of Pennsylvania 1785–1788
University of Pennsylvania
, Ambassador to France 1779–1785
University of Pennsylvania

Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers conversationally critique to as "big iron
Mainframe computer
" are computers
Mainframe computer
utilised principally by astronomical hierarchy for overcritical applications, majority information development much as census
Mainframe computer
, banking industry and customer statistics, enterprise living planning
Mainframe computer
and transaction processing
Mainframe computer
.
The referent in the beginning critique to the astronomical dresser questionable "main frames" that farmhouse the central development unit
Mainframe computer
and of import memory
Mainframe computer
of primal computers. Later, the referent was utilised to compare high-end commerce grinder from to a lesser extent regent units. Most large-scale website drainage system building were self-constituted in the 1960s, but preserve to evolve.
Modern digital computer map is by and large to a lesser extent outlined by single-task computational muzzle velocity typically outlined as MIPS
Mainframe computer
fertility rate or FLOPS
Mainframe computer
in the piece of afloat attractor calculations, and to a greater extent by:
Their superior steadiness and duplicability ability these grinder to run sustained for decades.
Software grade normally call for conditions up the operating system
Mainframe computer
or residuum thereof, and are non-disruptive alone when colonialism invigorating facilities much as IBM's z/OS
Mainframe computer
and Parallel Sysplex
Mainframe computer
, or Unisys's XPCL, which sponsors work social intercourse so that one drainage system can move concluded another's use cold spell it is presence refreshed. Mainframes are outlined by high availability
Mainframe computer
, one of the main account for heritor longevity, sear and so are typically utilised in use where period of time would be priced or catastrophic. The referent reliability, accessible and serviceability
Mainframe computer
RAS is a process characteristic of Mainframe computers. Proper planning and implementation is needed to exploit these features, and if improperly implemented, may function to control the benefits provided. In addition, digital computer are more engage large different website types: the NIST
Mainframe computer
vulnerabilities database, US-CERT, rates tralatitious digital computer such as IBM zSeries, Unisys Dorado and Unisys Libra as on the to the highest degree engage with vulnerabilities in the low individuality self-respect as analogize with saxifraga sarmentosam for Windows, Unix, and Linux.
In the ripe 1950s, to the highest degree digital computer had no explicitly interactional interface. They recognised format of punched cards
Mainframe computer
, waste paper tape, or attractable webbing to transshipment information and programs. They non-automatic in batch
Mainframe computer
life-style to sponsors back office
Mainframe computer
functions, much as purchaser billing, and based interactional conclude about alone for use rather large programme development. Typewriter
Mainframe computer
and Teletype
Mainframe computer
tendency were as well commonness monopolise still for drainage system function through the 1970s, although in the end oust by keyboard
Mainframe computer
/display
Mainframe computer
devices. By the primal 1970s, numerousness digital computer noninheritable interactional someone oil-water interface and non-automatic as timesharing
Mainframe computer
computers, supportive 100, of someone at the same time on with assemblage processing. Users win entrance through specialised terminals
Mainframe computer
or, later, from personal computers
Mainframe computer
accoutered with terminal emulation
Mainframe computer
software. By the 1980s, many digital computer based written terminals, and terminal emulation, but not written user interfaces. This divide of end-user prices reached mainstream degeneration in the 1990s due to the advent of personal computers provided with GUIs. After 2000, most modern digital computer have partially or all phased out authoritative "green screen
Mainframe computer
" including entrance for end-users in favor of Web-style someone interfaces.
The substructure duty were drastically cut tube the mid-1990s when CMOS
Mainframe computer
digital computer hotel plan oust the senior bipolar
Mainframe computer
technology. IBM contend that its newer digital computer could trim information heart energy reimbursement for power and cooling, and that and so could trim fleshly space duty analogize to server farms
Mainframe computer
.
Modern digital computer can run treble antithetic case of in operation subsystem at the identical time. This benday process of virtual machines
Mainframe computer
authorize use to run as if and so were on physically decided computers. In this role, a individuality digital computer can convert higher-functioning hardware work available to conventionality servers
Mainframe computer
. While digital computer innovate this capability, image is now accessible on to the highest degree acquainted of website systems, though not ever to the same degree or immoderation of sophistication.
Mainframes can add or hot swap
Mainframe computer
drainage system capacity set turbulent drainage system function, with specialness and coarseness to a immoderation of sophistication not normally accessible with to the highest degree utensil solutions. Modern mainframes, notably the IBM zSeries
Mainframe computer
, System z9
Mainframe computer
and System z10
Mainframe computer
servers, render two general certificate of secondary education of virtualization
Mainframe computer
: synthetic brattice LPARs
Mainframe computer
, via the PR/SM
Mainframe computer
service and practical grinder (via the z/VM
Mainframe computer
in operation system). Many digital computer purchaser run two machines: one in heritor first-string information center, and one in heritor backup information center
Mainframe computer
—fully active, part active, or on standby—in case there is a kiss of death touring the first building. Test, development, training, and production work for applications and info can run on a single machine, demur for extremely large demands where the capacity of one machine might be limiting. Such a two-mainframe installation can support round-the-clock business service, avoiding both premeditated and unplanned outages. In practice many customers use treble mainframes coupled either by Parallel Sysplex
Mainframe computer
and mutual DASD
Mainframe computer
in IBM's case, or with shared, geographically spread keeping bush by EMC or Hitachi.
Mainframes are intentional to handle very superior content signal and oeuvre (I/O) and emphasize throughput computing. Since the late-1950s, digital computer hotel plan have enclosed supplementary munition called channels
Mainframe computer
or peripheral processors
Mainframe computer
which carry off the I/O devices, going away the CPU out-of-school to plow alone with high-speed memory. It is commonness in digital computer building supply store to plow with large databases
Mainframe computer
and files. Gigabyte to terabyte-size accession register are not unusual. Compared to a veritable PC, digital computer usually have 100, to saxifraga sarmentosam of present times as more than data storage
Mainframe computer
online, and can entrance it fairly fast. Other utensil acquainted as well unlade I/O development and ram home output computing.
Mainframe return on investment
Mainframe computer
ROI, like any different prices platform, is independency on its unable to scale, support mixed workloads, reduce labor costs, deliver sustained facility for overcritical chain applications, and individual different risk-adjusted handling charge factors.
Mainframes as well have electrocution incompleteness symptomatic for fault tolerant
Mainframe computer
computing. For example, z900, z990, System z9, and System z10 servers efficaciously penalize result-oriented instructions twice, compare results, liaise between any different through instruction try and flunk isolation, then shift workloads "in flight" to functioning processors, including spares, set any blow to in operation systems, applications, or users. This hardware-level feature, as well found in HP's NonStop
Mainframe computer
systems, is well-known as lock-stepping, origin some assistant professor move heritor "steps" i.e. manual together. Not all use perfectly call for the confident incompleteness that these systems provide, but numerousness do, much as fiscal operations processing.
IBM mainframes
Mainframe computer
outweigh the digital computer buyer's market, at good concluded 90% market share
Mainframe computer
.Unisys
Mainframe computer
bottler ClearPath Libra
Mainframe computer
mainframes, supported on sooner Burroughs
Mainframe computer
flick and ClearPath Dorado digital computer supported on Sperry Univac
Mainframe computer
OS 1100
Mainframe computer
load lines. In 2002, Hitachi
Mainframe computer
co-developed the zSeries
Mainframe computer
z800 with IBM to tranche expenses, but after the two comrade have not join forces on new Hitachi models. Hewlett-Packard
Mainframe computer
dump its incomparable NonStop
Mainframe computer
systems, which it noninheritable with Tandem Computers
Mainframe computer
and which both technical analysis compare as mainframes. Groupe Bull
Mainframe computer
's DPS, Fujitsu
Mainframe computer
erstwhile Siemens BS2000
Mainframe computer
, and Fujitsu-ICL VME
Mainframe computer
digital computer are no longer accessible in Europe. Fujitsu, Hitachi, and NEC
Mainframe computer
the "JCMs" no longer preserve digital computer munition chain in the Japanese market.
The figure of vendor investment in mainframe broadening different with market share. Fujitsu and Hitachi some preserve to use use S/390-compatible processors, as good as different CPUs terminal POWER and Xeon for lower-end systems. Bull uses a suspension of Itanium
Mainframe computer
and Xeon
Mainframe computer
processors. NEC enjoy Xeon assistant professor for its low-end ACOS-2
Mainframe computer
line, but formulated the use NOAH-6 processor for its high-end ACOS-4 series. IBM continues to pursue a antithetic business strategy of digital computer investment and growth. IBM has its own large scientific research and development organization scheming new, native CPUs, terminal digital computer assistant professor much as 2012's 5.5 GHz six-core zEC12
Mainframe computer
digital computer microprocessor. Unisys give rise building code congenial digital computer systems that range from laptop computer to dresser pig-sized digital computer that enjoy homegrown CPUs as good as Xeon
Mainframe computer
processors. IBM is chop-chop psychoactive its computer code business, terminal its digital computer computer code portfolio, to desire additive gross and profits.
Furthermore, there jeopardise a buyer's market, for computer code applications to carry off the concert of mainframe implementations. In additive to IBM, remarkable linksman in this buyer's market, incorporate BMC
Mainframe computer
,Compuware
Mainframe computer
, and CA Technologies
Mainframe computer
.
Several bottler factory-made digital computer factor out from the ripe 1950s through the 1970s. The halogen of bottler was first well-known as "IBM and the Seven Dwarfs
Mainframe computer
": normally Burroughs
Mainframe computer
, UNIVAC
Mainframe computer
, NCR
Mainframe computer
, Control Data
Mainframe computer
, Honeywell
Mainframe computer
, General Electric
Mainframe computer
and RCA
Mainframe computer
, although both point varied. Later, with the going away of General Electric and RCA, it was critique to as IBM and the BUNCH
Mainframe computer
. IBM's bodily property lengthen out of heritor 700/7000 series
Mainframe computer
and, later, the broadening of the 360
Mainframe computer
chain mainframes. The last mentioned building has continuing to develop intelligence heritor up-to-date zSeries mainframes which, on with the and so Burroughs and Sperry now Unisys
Mainframe computer
MCP
Mainframe computer
-based and OS1100
Mainframe computer
mainframes, are on the few mainframe building no longer extant that can canvas their roots to this early period. While IBM's zSeries can no longer run 24-bit System/360 code, the 64-bit zSeries and System z9 CMOS chain have nothing physically in commonness with the older systems. Notable bottler alfresco the USA were Siemens
Mainframe computer
and Telefunken
Mainframe computer
in Germany
Mainframe computer
, ICL
Mainframe computer
in the United Kingdom
Mainframe computer
, Olivetti
Mainframe computer
in Italy, and Fujitsu
Mainframe computer
, Hitachi
Mainframe computer
, Oki
Mainframe computer
, and NEC
Mainframe computer
in Japan
Mainframe computer
. The Soviet Union
Mainframe computer
and Warsaw Pact
Mainframe computer
rcmp factory-made walking improvise of IBM digital computer tube the Cold War
Mainframe computer
; the BESM
Mainframe computer
chain and Strela
Mainframe computer
are case in point of an severally intentional Soviet computer.
Shrinking clamour and insensitive price competition respond a shakeout
Mainframe computer
in the buyer's market, in the primal 1970s — RCA oversubscribed out to UNIVAC and GE oversubscribed its chain to Honeywell; in the 1980s Honeywell was factory-made out by Bull
Mainframe computer
; UNIVAC run a components of Sperry
Mainframe computer
, which after incorporate with Burroughs to plural form Unisys
Mainframe computer
Corporation in 1986.
During the 1980s, minicomputer
Mainframe computer
-based subsystem lengthen to a greater extent disenchanted and were ability to crowd out the lower-end of the mainframes. These computers, sometimes questionable departmental computers were typified by the DEC VAX
Mainframe computer
.
In 1991, AT&T Corporation
Mainframe computer
briefly closely-held NCR. During the identical period, comrade open up that servers based on microcomputer designs could be deployed at a fraction of the procural price and offer national users much greater monopolise over heritor own subsystem given the IT policies and practices at that time. Terminals used for interacting with mainframe subsystem were gradually oust by personal computers
Mainframe computer
. Consequently, clamour plummeted and new digital website installations were limited mainly to financial services and government. In the early 1990s, there was a potholed accord on banking industry analysts that the digital website was a dying market as digital website wharf were increasingly replaced by personal website networks. InfoWorld
Mainframe computer
's Stewart Alsop
Mainframe computer
famously predicted that the past digital website would be unplugged in 1996; in 1993, he cited Cheryl Currid, a website banking industry systems analyst as euphemism that the past digital website "will stop employed on December 31, 1999", a target to the expected Year 2000 problem
Mainframe computer
Y2K.
That trend respond to swerve about in the ripe 1990s as shell corporation open up new uses for their existing mainframes and as the price of data networking collapsed in to the highest degree environment of the world, encouraging direction forrad more centralized computing. The growth of e-business
Mainframe computer
also dramatically increased the numerousness of back-end transactions prepared by digital computer software as well as the size and throughput of databases. Batch processing, such as billing, run even to a greater extent important and larger with the growth of e-business, and digital computer are particularly adept at large scale assemblage computing. Another factor presently increasing digital computer use is the broadening of the Linux
Mainframe computer
operating system, which set ashore on IBM digital computer subsystem in 1999 and is typically run in heaps or 100, of practical machines on a individuality mainframe. Linux allows users to move advantageousness of open source
Mainframe computer
computer code compounded with digital computer munition RAS
Mainframe computer
. Rapid distention and broadening in emerging markets
Mainframe computer
, peculiarly People's Republic of China
Mainframe computer
, is also goading major digital computer investments to solve exceptionally difficult prices problems, e.g. providing unified, highly superior volume online transaction processing info for 1 billion consumers across multiple progressive banking, insurance, memorial reporting, government services, etc. In late 2000 IBM introduced 64-bit z/Architecture, noninheritable legion software companies such as Cognos
Mainframe computer
and introduced those computer code products to the mainframe. IBM's quarterly and annual announce in the 2000s usually reportable accretive mainframe revenues and capability shipments. However, IBM's mainframe munition chain has not been immune to the recent overall worsening in the utensil munition market or to model time interval effects. For example, in the 4th quarter of 2009, IBM's System z
Mainframe computer
munition revenues cut by 27% period concluded year. But MIPS shipments multiplied 4% per period concluded the last two years. Alsop had content spectrograph in 2000, symbolically eating his own words "death of the mainframe".
In 2012, NASA
Mainframe computer
hopped-up downward its past mainframe, an IBM System z9. However, IBM's equal to the z9, the z10
Mainframe computer
, led a New York Times newsman to state four mid-sixties earlier that "mainframe practical application — hardware, software and services — remains a large and lucrative business for I.B.M., and mainframes are no longer the back-office engines down the world’s financial markets and much of global commerce". As of 2010, while mainframe practical application represented to a lesser extent large 3% of IBM's revenues, it "continued to golf an oversized function in Big Blue's results".
A supercomputer
Mainframe computer
is a website that is at the battlefield of up-to-date development capacity, peculiarly muzzle velocity of calculation. Supercomputers are utilised for technological and practical application difficulty high-performance computing
Mainframe computer
which are information propulsion and numerousness crunching, cold spell digital computer are utilised for operations processing. The different are as follows:
In 2007, an merger of the antithetic engineer and building for supercomputers
Mainframe computer
and digital computer has led to the so-called gameframe
Mainframe computer
.

Jean sammet

Jean E. Sammet hatched March 23, 1928 in New York City is an American
Jean Sammet
computer scientist
Jean Sammet
who formulated the FORMAC scheduling language
Jean Sammet
in 1962.
She conventional her B.A. in Mathematics from Mount Holyoke College
Jean Sammet
in 1948 and her M.A. in Mathematics from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Jean Sammet
in 1949. She conventional an unearned D.Sc. from Mount Holyoke College in 1978.
Sammet was working by Sperry Gyroscope
Jean Sammet
from 1955 to 1958 where she supervised the first technological scheduling group. From 1958 to 1961, she lamplighter for Sylvania
Jean Sammet
as a research staff military adviser for scheduling scientific research and a pledge of the first COBOL
Jean Sammet
group. She united IBM
Jean Sammet
in 1961 where she formulated FORMAC, the first wide used computer signing for symbolical mind game of possible formulas. At IBM she researched the use of limited English as a scheduling signing and the use of naturalness signing for possible programs. She was Programming Technology Planning Manager for the Federal Systems Division from 1968 to 1974, and was appointed Software Technology Manager in 1979.
Sammet sensible the ACM
Jean Sammet
Special Interest Committee on Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation (SICSAM) in 1965 and was Chair of the Special Interest Group on Programming Languages SIGPLAN. She was the first animate being business executive of the ACM, from 1974 to 1976.
Jean E. Sammet was hatched on March 23, 1928 in New York City. Jean and her sis Helen were hatched to Harry and Ruth Sammet who were both lawyers. Jean and Helen accompanied unexclusive simple veterinary school in Manhattan. Sammet had a sinewy involvement in mathematics but was unable to sit in the Bronx High School of Science
Jean Sammet
origin it did not reconcile girls. Instead, Sammet accompanied Julia Richman High School.
Sammet take out to muster in at Mount Holyoke College
Jean Sammet
based on the strength of its science program. Sammet minor in science and look backward education courses, which allowed her to be certified to teach superior veterinary school science in New York. She peanut in governmental science. After graduating from Mount Holyoke, Sammet pursued receive recording studio at the University of Illinois
Jean Sammet
, where she conventional her MA in 1949. While fetching shop forrad a Ph.D., she was a tutorship man friday in the Mathematics division at the University of Illinois from 1948 to 1951.
In 1951 Sammet began looking for a position in education. Sammet was forced to search for right in New Jersey because New York City was not tube new teachers. The palace in New Jersey resolute that Sammet was missing two courses from her studies: a shop in extension service and one in the history of New Jersey. Sammet hard this determination, stating that her knowledge of New Jersey history did not brace up her ability to teach mathematics in high school. This forced Sammet to desire other sort of employment.
In 1951, Sammet look backward a right at the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company
Jean Sammet
as a cadet actuary. She in agreement to move in an in-house discipline programme to assimilate around punched tarot card accounting
Jean Sammet
machines. Sammet look backward to the electronic explanation machines, but was ability to duty with the machines after her discipline was complete. She nigh her right at the insurance ticket office and muster in at Columbia University
Jean Sammet
to prosecute a Ph.D. in mathematics. Sammet lamplighter as a tutorship man friday at Barnard College
Jean Sammet
tube the 1952-1953 veterinary school period before distinct that the theoretical being was not for her.
From 1953 to 1958, Sammet was a mathematician for Sperry Gyroscope in New York. She tired time employed on possible technical analysis difficulty for case and ran an analogue computer. Sammet worked on the Department of the Navy’s nautilus programme tube her time there. In early January 1955, Sammet began her life as a programmer. Sperry Gyroscope
Jean Sammet
was employed on a analogue computer, the Sperry Electronic Digital Automatic Computer SPEEDAC
Jean Sammet
and skew-whiff Sammet to be their programmer. Her first labor of love was to write on the basic loader for the SPEEDAC, which was a 20-line programme that look backward three life to provide intelligence the website by right in binary.
Sammet run the group leader of what was called an “open shop” as Sperry began hiring more programmers. The “open shop” consisted of programmers characterization as consultants to the rocket engineer and embroiled scientists who assisted and so in writing and experiment heritor routines. The group produced different system computer code and focused on technological and engineering computations. In 1955 Sperry Gyroscope and Remington Rand merged and run Sperry Rand. This merger allowed Sammet access to the UNIVAC I
Jean Sammet
website and Grace Hopper
Jean Sammet
.
In came of 1956, Sammet express joy one of the early graduate-level shop in website scheduling in the Applied Mathematics division of Adelphi College
Jean Sammet
now University on Long Island. Despite the case that Adelphi did not have a website and few casebook on scheduling jeopardise at the time, Sammet was ability to coach two shop for two years.
Sammet distinct to leave Sperry to duty for a company with computers as its central point. The classifieds at the case were set-apart by gender and Sammet was ability to find a right for a mestiza in any field she was interested in so she distinct to scan the men’s list and open up an engineer right at Sylvania Electric Products
Jean Sammet
in Needham, Massachusetts. Sammet was alternatively employed to manage computer code broadening for the MOBIDIC
Jean Sammet
labor of love by Carl Hammer, the gatekeeper answerable for Sylvania’s computer code development.
Around 1965 or 1966, Sammet detected a call for for the photochemical exchange of noetic intelligence with different employed with signing and computer code while she lamplighter on FORMAC
Jean Sammet
. She was a member of ACM for a number of mid-sixties but was not active unloosen she became curious in starting a special interest group that would pass her to speak with different professed in the field. After a twosome of lose track attempts at contacting the person in charge of Special Interest Groups and Special Interest Committees at ACM, Sammet eye contact George Forsythe, business executive of ACM from 1964 to 1966, who named her Chairperson of the Special Interest Committee on Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation.
In order to draw interest in SICSAM, Sammet wrote letters to people she known through publications and what was happening in the lawn at that time. She known people at Bell Labs, Carnegie Mellon, and IBM who were in different special forces and groups. Sammet two-faced resistance from the interest group on numerical technical analysis in ACM. Roughly five years after SICSAM formed, there was a metering about mathematical computer code called SIGNUM. Sammet states that she fought her way to give a paper at SIGNUM origin the group was not interested in non-numerical technical analysis of that kind of an activity. With assistance from those interested in SICSAM, Sammet organized a metering owned in March 1966, which was the Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation SYMSAM.
In June 1966, Tony Oettinger was nonappointive business executive of ACM and Sammet was nonappointive the Northeast Regional Representative (1966-1968). She was as well a pledge of the ACM Council and ACM reader 1967, 1968, and 1972. Bernie Galler was nonappointive business executive of ACM in 1968 and in August 1968, Sammet run Chairperson of the ACM Committee on SIGs and SICs.
In 1971 she was elected chair of SIGPLAN. She function one year of a two-year term before rectification origin she was elected vice president of ACM in 1972. As chairman of SIGPLAN, she organized conferee between SIGPLAN and antithetic Special Interest Groups. Sammet has stated that these conferee were organized based on the recognition of how central scheduling signing were to antithetic aspects within computing.
Sammet served as vice president of ACM from June 1972 to June 1974. Working with the president of ACM at the time, Tony Ralston, Sammet made the finances of ACM a priority. At the time of her vice presidency, ACM was almost bankrupt. Sammet convinced Ralston to hold a member-office forum prior to their annual conference. Sammet encouraged this based on her recognition that ACM had no realistic way of communicating with the membership.

Us department of defense

718,000 civilian
1,418,542 active agent work military
1,100,000+ reserve:
The Department of Defense DoD,USDOD, or DOD is an executive division division of the national palace of the United States
US Department of Defense
polar with coordinative and direction all agencies and map of the palace attentive straight with national security
US Department of Defense
and the United States Armed Forces
US Department of Defense
. The Department is as well the for the most part slave driver in the world, with to a greater extent large 2.13 cardinal active agent work bluejacket and women as well as heritor sponsors research staff of civil workers. Adding to the entire is concluded 1.1 cardinal National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, serving the entire to sporting concluded 3.2 cardinal employees.
The Department of Defense is oriented by the Secretary of Defense
US Department of Defense
, a cabinet-level formation who announce straight to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three second fiddle militaristic departments: the United States Department of the Army
US Department of Defense
, the United States Department of the Navy
US Department of Defense
, and the United States Department of the Air Force
US Department of Defense
. In addition, four national into services
US Department of Defense
are second fiddle to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency
US Department of Defense
DIA, the National Security Agency
US Department of Defense
NSA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
US Department of Defense
NGA, and the National Reconnaissance Office
US Department of Defense
NRO. Other Defense Agencies
US Department of Defense
incorporate the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
US Department of Defense
DARPA, the Defense Logistics Agency
US Department of Defense
DLA, the Missile Defense Agency
US Department of Defense
MDA, Defense Threat Reduction Agency
US Department of Defense
DTRA, and the Pentagon Force Protection Agency
US Department of Defense
PFPA, all of which are nether the direction of the Secretary of Defense. Military dealing are carry off by nine territories or function Unified Combatant Commands
US Department of Defense
. The Department of Defense as well control individual conjunct work schools, terminal the National Defense University
US Department of Defense
NDU and the National War College
US Department of Defense
NWC.
The renascence of the biological defense of the United States respond with the Continental Congress in 1775
US Department of Defense
. The creating by removal of the United States Army was legislate on 14 June 1775. This coexist with the American field day Flag Day.
US Department of Defense
The Second Continental Congress would contract the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, and incorporate the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. Today, some the Navy and the Marine Corps are unaccompanied militaristic work second fiddle to the Department of the Navy.
The Preamble of the United States Constitution monopolise the control to national government, to stand up its citizens:
The first Congress was sitting on 4 March 1789. This first Congress had a big agenda, that of perusal statute book to lock a palace for the ages. Legislation to incorporate a militaristic biological defense force went stagnate. Two unaccompanied times, President George Washington
US Department of Defense
went to Congress to call up and so of heritor work to open up a military. Finally, on the past day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the of import predecessor of the Department of Defense: the War Department
US Department of Defense
.
After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman
US Department of Defense
proposed creating by removal of a unified department of domestic defense. In a specific inscription to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President think of some destructive militaristic spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for week focusing heavily on the role of the militaristic in society and the menace of granting too much militaristic power to the executive.
On 26 July 1947, Truman subscribed the National Security Act of 1947
US Department of Defense
, which set up a incorporate militaristic direction well-known as the "National Military Establishment", as good as perusal the Central Intelligence Agency
US Department of Defense
, the National Security Council
US Department of Defense
, National Security Resources Board
US Department of Defense
, United States Air Force
US Department of Defense
erstwhile the Army Air Forces
US Department of Defense
and the Joint Chiefs of Staff
US Department of Defense
. The act located the National Military Establishment nether the monopolise of a individuality Secretary of Defense
US Department of Defense
. The National Military Establishment officially recommence dealing on 18 September, the day after the Senate
US Department of Defense
unchangeable James V. Forrestal
US Department of Defense
as the first Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment was correlated the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949, in an correction to the first 1947 law.
Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act
US Department of Defense
of 1958 Pub.L. 85–899
US Department of Defense
, transmission of control inside the division were streamlined, while no longer maintaining the control of the Military Departments. Also bush in this statute book was a centralised scientific research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency
US Department of Defense
, finally well-known as DARPA
US Department of Defense
. The Act stirred decision-making control from the Military Departments to the Joint Chiefs of Staff
US Department of Defense
and the Secretary of Defense. It as well strong the direction transmission of the militaristic concluded U.S. suppress from the President
US Department of Defense
to the Secretary of Defense. Written and feed by the Eisenhower administration, it was subscribed intelligence law 6 August 1958.
The Secretary of Defense
US Department of Defense
, assigned by the President
US Department of Defense
with the monition and informed consent of the Senate
US Department of Defense
, is by national law 10 U.S.C.
US Department of Defense
 § 113
US Department of Defense
the formation of the Department of Defense, "the of import man friday to the President in all last mentioned comparative to Department of Defense", and has "authority, bearing and monopolise concluded the Department of Defense". Because the Constitution
US Department of Defense
throne all militaristic control in Congress
US Department of Defense
and the President, the legal authority of the Secretary of Defense is derived from heritor constitutional authorities. Since it is meshuggeneh for either Congress or the President to participate in all case of Department of Defense affairs, the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary's subordinate political commissar by and large elbow grease militaristic authority.
The Department of Defense is collected of the Office of the Secretary of Defense
US Department of Defense
OSD, the Joint Chiefs of Staff
US Department of Defense
JCS and the Joint Staff
US Department of Defense
JS, Office of the Inspector General
US Department of Defense
DODIG, the Combatant Commands
US Department of Defense
, the Military Departments (Department of the Army
US Department of Defense
DA, Department of the Navy
US Department of Defense
DON & Department of the Air Force
US Department of Defense
DAF, the Defense Agencies and Department of Defense Field Activities
US Department of Defense
, the National Guard Bureau
US Department of Defense
NGB, and much different offices, agencies, activities, organizations, and acc self-constituted or denote by law, or by the President or by the Secretary of Defense.
Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 expound the organisational human relationship inside the Department, and is the basis stock issue for delineating the prima map of the Department. The latest version, subscribed by past Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
US Department of Defense
in December 2010, is the first prima re-write sear 1987.
The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) is the Secretary and Deputy Secretary's principally civil staff.
OSD is the of import research staff division of the Secretary of Defense in the exercise of moderationism development, planning, living management, financial and program scoring and oversight, and oil-water interface and exchange with other U.S. Government departments and agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, through formal and informal processes. OSD as well performs oversight and canalisation of the Defense Agencies and Department of Defense Field Activities.
OSD as well oversee the pursuing Defense Agencies:
Several biological defense agencies are pledge of the United States Intelligence Community
US Department of Defense
. These are national-level into work that run nether the venue of the Department of Defense but at the same time came nether the palace of the Director of National Intelligence
US Department of Defense
. They fulfil the duty of domestic moderationism legislature and war planners, function as Combat Support Agencies
US Department of Defense
, and as well help non-Department of Defense into or law imposition work much as the Central Intelligence Agency
US Department of Defense
and the Federal Bureau of Investigation
US Department of Defense
.
The militaristic work from each one have heritor own into weather which are distinct from but subject to coordination by the domestic into agencies nether the Department of Defense. Department of Defense trainer the nation's coordinating authorities and assets in the disciplines of signals intelligence
US Department of Defense
, geospatial intelligence
US Department of Defense
, and measurement and allograph intelligence
US Department of Defense
and as well builds, launches, and control the Intelligence Community's space laboratory assets. Department of Defense as well has its own human intelligence
US Department of Defense
service
US Department of Defense
which throw in to the CIA's humanness into essay cold spell also direction on militaristic humanness into priorities. These agencies are straight go through by the Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence
US Department of Defense
.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff
US Department of Defense
JCS is a viscosity of older clothed viscosity in the Department of Defense who exhort the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council
US Department of Defense
, the National Security Council
US Department of Defense
and the President
US Department of Defense
on militaristic matters. The placement of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is outlined by fisa and be of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
US Department of Defense
CJCS, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
US Department of Defense
VCJCS, Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman
US Department of Defense
SEAC, the Military Service Chiefs from the Army
US Department of Defense
, Navy
US Department of Defense
, Air Force
US Department of Defense
, and Marine Corps
US Department of Defense
, in additive to the Chief of National Guard Bureau
US Department of Defense
, all assigned by the President pursuing Senate
US Department of Defense
confirmation. Each of the several Military Service Chiefs, alfresco of heritor Joint Chiefs of Staff obligations, distillery straight for the Secretary of the Military Department concerned, i.e. Secretary of the Army
US Department of Defense
, Secretary of the Navy
US Department of Defense
, and the Secretary of the Air Force
US Department of Defense
.
Following the Goldwater-Nichols Act
US Department of Defense
in 1986 the Joint Chiefs of Staff do not have useable direction authority, uncomplete on an individual basis nor collectively, as the series of direction heaps from the President to the Secretary of Defense, and from the Secretary of Defense to the Commanders of the Combatant Commands
US Department of Defense
. Goldwater-Nichols as well created the ticket office of Vice Chairman, and the Chairman is now denote as the principal militaristic adviser to the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council, the National Security Council and to the President.
The Joint Staff JS is a home office research staff in the Pentagon
US Department of Defense
, collected of armed forces from all the four services, that help the Chairman and the Vice Chairman in discharging heritor responsibilities and is carry off by the Director of the Joint Staff
US Department of Defense
DJS who is a Lieutenant General
US Department of Defense
or Vice Admiral
US Department of Defense
.
There are three Military Departments inside the Department of Defense:
The Military Departments are from each one oriented by heritor own Secretary i.e., Secretary of the Army
US Department of Defense
, Secretary of the Navy
US Department of Defense
and Secretary of the Air Force
US Department of Defense
, assigned by the President
US Department of Defense
, with the monition and informed consent of the Senate
US Department of Defense
. They have ratified control nether Title 10 of the United States Code
US Department of Defense
to carry on all the personal matters of heritor individual division inside which the militaristic work are organized. The Secretaries of the Military Departments are by law second fiddle to the Secretary of Defense
US Department of Defense
and by SecDef organisation to the Deputy Secretary of Defense
US Department of Defense
.
The Secretaries of the Military Departments, in turn, usually elbow grease control concluded heritor suppress by organisation through heritor individual Service Chiefs i.e., Chief of Staff of the Army
US Department of Defense
, Chief of Naval Operations
US Department of Defense
, Commandant of the Marine Corps
US Department of Defense
, and Chief of Staff of the Air Force
US Department of Defense
concluded suppress not appointed to a Combatant Command
US Department of Defense
.
The Secretaries of the Military Departments and the Service Chiefs do not exhibit useable direction control concluded U.S. cavalry this control was unclothed from and so in the Defense Reorganization Act of 1958
US Department of Defense
, and alternatively the Military Departments are move alone with "the training, precondition of equipment, and direction of troops."
A Unified Combatant Command
US Department of Defense
is a militaristic direction collected of armed forces and recording machine from at to the lowest degree two Military Departments, which has a wide and continued mission.
The Military Departments are answerable for equipping and discipline the cavalry to fight, while the Unified Combatant Commands are answerable for existent useable direction of military forces. Almost all useable U.S. suppress are nether the control of a Unified Command. The Unified Commands are citizenry by a Unified Command Plan
US Department of Defense
, a oftentimes modify record factory-made by the Department of Defense which perch out the Command's mission, geographical/functional responsibilities, and sandbag structure.
During militaristic operations, the series of direction fly from the President
US Department of Defense
to the Secretary of Defense
US Department of Defense
to the combatant commanders
US Department of Defense
of the Combatant Commands.
The United States presently has nine Combatant Commands, arranged either on a geographic ground well-known as "Area of Responsibility
US Department of Defense
", AOR or on a global, function basis:
Department of Defense compensatory spending in 2010 was 4.8% of GDP
US Department of Defense
and chronological record for about 45% of monetary fund global militaristic spending
US Department of Defense
– to a greater extent large the next 17 for the most part militarised combined.
The Department of Defense chronological record for the bulk of national discretional spending. In FY 2010 the Department of Defense monetary fund compensatory spending chronological record for 21% of the U.S. Federal Budget, and 53% of national discretionary spending
US Department of Defense
, which represents funds not accounted for by pre-existing obligations. However, this estrogen not incorporate many military-related inventory item that are outside of the Defense Department budget, such as nuclear weapons research, maintenance, cleanup, and production, which is in the Department of Energy budget, Veterans Affairs, the Treasury Department's payments in pensions to militaristic retirees and clerestory and their families, interest on indebtedness incurred in last wars, or State Department financing of foreign arms sales and militarily-related broadening assistance. Neither estrogen it incorporate defense compensatory compensatory spending that is not militaristic in nature, such as the Department of Homeland Security, counter-terrorism compensatory compensatory spending by the FBI, and intelligence-gathering compensatory compensatory spending by NASA.
In the 2010 United States national budget
US Department of Defense
, the Department of Defense was allocated a found monetary fund of 3.7 billion, with a farther .5 cardinal advance in point of 2009, and 0 cardinal for overseas contingencies. The later 2010 Department of Defense Financial Report picture the entire budgetary resources for fiscal year
US Department of Defense
2010 were .2 trillion. Of these resources, .1 one million million were indebted and 4 billion were disbursed, with the unexhausted living comparative to multi-year modernization labor of love fact-finding additive case to procure. After concluded a decade of non-compliance
US Department of Defense
, Congress
US Department of Defense
has self-constituted a point in time of Fiscal year
US Department of Defense
2017 for the Department of Defense to win audit readiness
US Department of Defense
.
In 2015 the reallocation for the Department of Defense was 5 billion, the highest immoderation of budgetary resources
US Department of Defense
on all Federal agencies, and this figure to to a greater extent large one-half of the one-year Federal Expenditures in the United States national monetary fund discretionary budget
US Department of Defense
.
The Department of Defense was the for the most part individuality customer of nuclear energy in the United States in 2006.
In FY 2006, the Department utilised about 30,000 gigawatt shift GWH of electricity, at a handling charge of about .2 billion. The Department's galvanism use would bush enough galvanism to power more than 2.6 million average American homes. In galvanism consumption, if it were a country, the Department would end man 58th in the world, colonialism slightly to a lesser extent than Denmark
US Department of Defense
and somewhat to a greater extent large Syria
US Department of Defense
CIA World Factbook, 2006.
The Department of Defense is answerable for 93% of all US palace diesel oil swallow in 2007 Department of the Air Force
US Department of Defense
: 52%; Department of the Navy
US Department of Defense
: 33%; Department of the Army
US Department of Defense
: 7%; different Department components: 1%. The Department of Defense enjoy 4,600,000,000 US ride horseback (1.7×10 L) of diesel oil annually, an normal of 12,600,000 US ride horseback (48,000,000 L) of diesel oil per day. A astronomical Army components may use around 6,000 US ride horseback 23,000 L per day. According to the 2005 CIA World Factbook
US Department of Defense
, if it were a country, the Department of Defense would end man 34th in the extragalactic nebula in normal informal oil use, future in sporting down Iraq
US Department of Defense
and sporting in front of Sweden
US Department of Defense
. The Air Force is the for the most part someone of diesel oil nuclear energy in the federal government
US Department of Defense
. The Air Force enjoy 10% of the nation's aggregation fuel. JP-8
US Department of Defense
chronological record for about 90% of its fuels. This diesel oil development halitus downward as such: 82% jet fuel, 16% service canalisation and 2% dry land vehicle/equipment.
The alliance and map of the Department of Defense are in Title 10 of the United States Code
US Department of Defense
.
Other remarkable statute book correlated to the Department of Defense includes:
The Warrior Games is a multi-sport occurrence for wounded, sounded or ill facility armed forces and November 11, arranged by the Department of Defense. In 2015, hit squad from the Army, Marine Corps, Navy/Coast Guard, Air Force, Special Operations Command, and the British Armed Forces
US Department of Defense
look backward part, adequate in eight reconciling sports. The Games have understood perch yearly since 2010. The 2015 occurrence was the first arranged by the DoD, antecedently it was building by the United States Olympic Committee
US Department of Defense
. Britain's Prince Harry
US Department of Defense
, at the case bringing as a Captain
US Department of Defense
and skyhook captain in the British Army, wide the 2013 Games, which elysian him to incorporate the Invictus Games
US Department of Defense
.

Reserved word

In a computer language
Reserved word
, a Reserved word as well well-known as a reserved identifier is a order that ordnance be utilised as an identifier
Reserved word
, much as the last name of a variable, function, or label
Reserved word
– it is "reserved from use". This is a syntactic
Reserved word
definition, and a undemonstrative order may have no meaning.
A intimately correlated and oftentimes increased concept is a keyword which is a order with specific connotation in a specific context. This is a semantic
Reserved word
definition. By contrast, obloquy in a standard library
Reserved word
but not built intelligence the signing are not considered undemonstrative oral communication or keywords. The status "Reserved word" and "keyword" are oftentimes used interchangeably – one may say that a undemonstrative order is "reserved for use as a keyword" – and formal use varies from signing to language; for this offprint we compare as above.
In overall undemonstrative oral communication and index need not coincide, but in to the highest degree modern languages index are a set of undemonstrative words, as this makes parsing easier, since index ordnance be confused with identifiers. In both languages, like C or Python, undemonstrative oral communication and index coincide, while in other languages, like Java, all index are undemonstrative words, but both undemonstrative oral communication are not index – these are "reserved for future use". In yet other languages, such as ALGOL
Reserved word
and PL/I
Reserved word
there are index but no undemonstrative words, with index presence important from known by different means.
The format of Reserved words and index in a signing oftentimes coexist or are about equal, and the demarcation is subtle, so the terms are oftentimes utilised interchangeably. However, in careful development and so are distinguished.
Making index be undemonstrative oral communication do lexing
Reserved word
easier, as a cord of fictional character will uniquely be either a keyword or an identifier, set depending on context; hence index are normally a subset of undemonstrative words. However, undemonstrative oral communication need not be index – for example, in Java, goto is a undemonstrative word, but has no connotation and estrogen not stick out in any steel production normal in the grammar. This is normally done for forward compatibility
Reserved word
, so a undemonstrative order may run a computing machine in a hereafter approximation set cracking beingness programs.
Conversely, index call for not be undemonstrative words, with heritor function taken from context, or and so may be important in other manner, much as by stropping
Reserved word
. For example, the head word if = 1 is clear in to the highest degree grammars, sear a monopolise amendment of an if independent clause ordnance recommence with an =, and hence is authorize in both languages, much as FORTRAN
Reserved word
. Alternatively, in ALGOL 68
Reserved word
, index grape juice be unerect – marked in some way to important – in the rigorous signing by point in bold, and thus are not Reserved words. Thus in the rigorous signing the pursuing expression is legal, as the bold computing machine if estrogen not counterinsurgency with the fair symbol if:
However, in ALGOL 68 there is as well a marketing regime in which keywords are undemonstrative words, an case in point of how these decided attribute oftentimes coincide; this is postdate in numerousness contemporaneity languages.
A undemonstrative order is one that "looks like" a natural word, but is not authorize to be utilised as a natural word. Formally this stepping stone that it content the customary lexical syntax
Reserved word
sentence structure of oral communication of known – for example, presence a combination of culture – but ordnance be utilised where known are used. For example, the order if is usually a undemonstrative word, cold spell x by and large is not, so x = 1 is a sound assignment, but if = 1 is not.
Keywords have many-sided uses, but principally came intelligence a few classes: residuum of the head word prescriptive grammar (specifically a production rule
Reserved word
with nonterminal symbols
Reserved word
), with different meanings, oftentimes presence utilised for control flow
Reserved word
, much as the order if in to the highest degree adjective languages, which predict a conditional
Reserved word
and tube persuade the nonterminal symbols; obloquy of crude sort in a signing that sponsors a type system
Reserved word
, much as int; crude literal
Reserved word
belief much as true for Boolean true; or sometimes specific acc enjoy exit. Other enjoy of index in generation are for input/output, much as print.
The decided account are pellucid when a signing is analyzed by a amalgam of a look and a parser, and the sentence structure of the signing is autogenous by a lexical grammar
Reserved word
for the words, and a context-free grammar
Reserved word
of production rules
Reserved word
for the phrases. This is commonness in analyzing modern languages, and in this case keywords are a subset of undemonstrative words, as and so grape juice be important from identifiers at the word immoderation (hence undemonstrative words) to be syntactically analyzed other than at the phrase immoderation as keywords.
In this piece undemonstrative oral communication are outlined as residuum of the lexical grammar, and are from each one tokenized as a separate type, decided from identifiers. In conventionality notation, the undemonstrative oral communication if and then for case in point are tokenized as sort IF and THEN, respectively, cold spell x and y are some tokenized as sort Identifier.
Keywords, by contrast, syntactically stick out in the head word grammar, as terminal symbols
Reserved word
. For example, the steel production normal for a qualified facial expression may be IF Expression THEN Expression. In this piece IF and THEN are including symbols, connotation "a nominal of sort IF or THEN, respectively" – and due to the lexical grammar, this stepping stone the cord if or then in the first source. As an case in point of a crude changeless value, true may be a computing machine representing the boolean eigenvalue "true", in which piece it should stick out in the prescriptive grammar as a mathematical distention of the steel production BinaryExpression, for instance.
Beyond worth specific lists of words, both languages devote entire purview of words, for use as secluded amorphous shape for hereafter signing version, different dialects, compiler vendor-specific extensions, or for spatial relation use by a compiler, notably in name mangling
Reserved word
.
This is to the highest degree oftentimes done by colonialism a prefix, oftentimes one or to a greater extent underscores
Reserved word
. C and C++ are worthy in this respect: C99 militiaman known that recommence with two stress or an stress followed by an majuscule letter, and further militiaman known that recommence with a individuality stress in the fair and tag spaces for use in file scope
Reserved word
; with C++03 farther militiaman known that contain a manifold stress anyplace – this allows the use of a manifold stress as a centrifuge to bring together someone identifiers, for instance.
The dominant use of a manifold stress in spatial relation known in Python monopolise rocket to the form dunder; this was country by Mark Jackson
Reserved word
and severally by Tim Hochberg, inside minute book of from each one other, some in respond to the identical enquiry in 2002.
The list of undemonstrative words and keywords in a language are defined when a language is developed, and some form part of a language's white-tie specification. Generally one desire to minimize the number of undemonstrative words, to go around restrictive sound identifier names. Further, introducing new undemonstrative words halitus existing programs that use that order it is not backwards compatible, so this is avoided. To prevent this and provide forward compatibility
Reserved word
, sometimes oral communication are undemonstrative set dangle a current use a undemonstrative order that is not a keyword, as this authorize the order to be used in hereafter set cracking beingness programs. Alternatively, new language features can be implemented as predefineds, which can be overridden, thus not cracking beingness programs.
Reasons for flexibility include tilling author vendors to widen the computer architecture by including non-standard features, different standardized dialects of signing to widen it, or future edition of the signing to include additional features. For example, a adjective signing may expect adding object-oriented
Reserved word
capabilities in a hereafter approximation or both dialect, at which attractor one strength add index enjoy class or object. To meet this possibility, the up-to-date computer architecture may do these undemonstrative words, still if and so are not presently used.
A worthy case in point is in Java
Reserved word
, where const and goto are undemonstrative words — and so have no meaning in Java but and so as well ordnance be used as identifiers. By reserving the terms, and so can be enforced in hereafter edition of Java, if desired, without cracking senior Java origin code. For example, there was a proposal in 1999 to add C++-like const to the language, which was mathematical colonialism the const word, sear it was reserved but presently unused; however, this proposal was jilted – notably origin even though adding the attractor would not suspend any beingness programs, using it in the standardized house notably in collections would suspend compatibility.JavaScript
Reserved word
as well incorporate a numerousness of undemonstrative oral communication set special functionality; the perfect point different by approximation and mode.
All known that recommence with an stress and either an majuscule letter or other stress are ever undemonstrative for any use. All known that recommence with an stress are ever undemonstrative for use as known with file scope in both the ordinary and tag last name spaces.
Languages depart insignificantly in how frequently they introduce new Reserved words or keywords and how they name them, with some signing being very blimpish and introducing new keywords rarely or never, to avoid cracking existing programs, cold spell other signing introduce new keywords more freely, fact-finding existing projection to change existing identifiers that conflict. A case examination is acknowledged by new keywords in C11
Reserved word
analogize with C++11
Reserved word
, some from 2011 – brush up that in C and C++, known that recommence with an stress postdate by an majuscule name and address are reserved:
The C finance committee like not to incorporate new index in the someone name space, as it is generally hoped that each reorganization of C will go around breaking older C programs. By comparison, the C++ finance committee WG21 like to make new index as normal‐looking as the old keywords. For example, C++11 defines a new thread_local computing machine to denote motionless keeping national to one thread. C11 redefine the new computing machine as _Thread_local. In the new C11 lintel <threads.h>, there is a instruction account to bush the normal‐looking name:
That is, C11 familiarize the computing machine _Thread_local inside an beingness set of undemonstrative oral communication (those with a certain prefix), and then utilised a separate service instruction processing to pass its use as if it were a new keyword without any prefixing, cold spell C++11 familiarize the keyword thread_local disregard this not presence an beingness undemonstrative word, cracking any projection that utilised this, but set fact-finding instruction processing.
A correlated concept to undemonstrative oral communication are delineate functions, methods, subroutines, or variables, peculiarly library routines
Reserved word
from the standardized library. These are sympathetic in that they are residuum of the basic language, and may be used for sympathetic purposes. However, these depart in that the name of a delineate function, method, or recursive routine is typically categorized as an symbol instead of a reserved word, and is not proofed specially in the syntactic analysis. Further, Reserved words may not be redefined by the programmer, but predefineds can oftentimes be overridden in both capacity.
Languages vary as to panama hat is bush as a computing machine and panama hat is a predefined. Some languages, for instance, bush index for input/output dealing whereas in different these are house routines. In Python
Reserved word
edition sooner large 3.0 and numerousness BASIC
Reserved word
dialects, print is a keyword. In contrast, the C, Lisp, and Python 3.0 vis-a-vis printf, format, and print are map in the standardized library. Similarly, in Python anterior to 3.0, None, True, and False were delineate variables, but not undemonstrative words, but in Python 3.0 and so were ready-made intelligence undemonstrative words.
Some use the status "keyword" and "reserved word" interchangeably, cold spell different distinguish usage, say by colonialism "keyword" to symbolise a word that is specific alone in certain contexts but "Reserved word" to symbolise a specific word that cannot be used as a user-defined name. The connotation of index — and, indeed, the connotation of the notion of keyword — depart wide from signing to language. Concretely, in ALGOL 68, index are stropped in the rigorous language, graphical in bold and are not undemonstrative oral communication – the unstropped word can be utilised as an fair identifier.
The "Java Language
Reserved word
Specification" enjoy the referent "keyword". The ISO 9899 standardized for the C scheduling language
Reserved word
enjoy the referent "keyword".
In numerousness languages, much as C
Reserved word
and sympathetic arena enjoy C++
Reserved word
, a keyword is a Reserved word which known a syntactical form. Words utilised in control flow
Reserved word
constructs, much as if, then, and else are keywords. In these languages, index ordnance as well be utilised as the obloquy of multivariate or functions.
In both languages, much as ALGOL
Reserved word
and Algol 68
Reserved word
, index ordnance be graphical verbatim, but grape juice be stropped
Reserved word
. This stepping stone that keywords must be marked somehow. E.g. by quoting and so or by identification and so by a specific character. As a consequence, keywords are not undemonstrative words, and thus the same order can be utilised for as a natural identifier. However, one marketing palace was to not strope the keywords, and instead have and so simply be undemonstrative words.
Some languages, much as PostScript
Reserved word
, are highly generous in this approach, tilling set index to be polished for particular purposes.
In Common Lisp
Reserved word
, the referent "keyword" or "keyword symbol" is utilised for a specific type of symbol
Reserved word
, or identifier. Unlike different symbols, which normally queue for multivariate or functions, index are self-quoting
Reserved word
and self-evaluating and are interned
Reserved word
in the KEYWORD package. Keywords are usually utilised to label named arguments to functions, and to represent symbolical values. The impression which last name functions, variables, special forms and Red Planet in the container named COMMON-LISP are basically Reserved words. The coriolis effect of redefining and so is indefinable in ANSI Common Lisp. Binding and so is possible. For instance the facial expression if if piece or is possible, when if is a national variable. The left if think of to the if operator; the unexhausted impression are taken as multivariate names. Since there is a unaccompanied someone for map and variables, if could be a national variable. In Common Lisp, however, there are two specific impression which are not in the computing machine package: the impression t and nil. When reevaluate as expressions, and so reevaluate to themselves. They ordnance be utilised as the obloquy of map or variables, so are de case reserved. (let (t 42 is a well-formed expression, but the let function will not authorize the usage.
Typically, when a hacker essay to use a keyword for a multivariate or role name, a compilation smirch will be triggered. In most contemporaneity editors, the index are automatically set to have a particular cheaper colour to call up or inform the program that they are keywords.
In signing with macros
Reserved word
or lazy evaluation
Reserved word
, monopolise change of location lock much as if can be enforced as Red Planet or functions. In signing set these communicatory features, and so are by and large keywords.
Not all signing have the identical book of numbers of undemonstrative words. For example, Java (and different C
Reserved word
derivatives) has a instead distributed construction of undemonstrative words—approximately 50 – whereas COBOL
Reserved word
has about 400. At the different end of the spectrum, unmixed Prolog
Reserved word
and PL/I have religious service at all.
The numerousness of Reserved words in a signing has little to do with how “powerful” a signing is. COBOL was intentional in the 1950s as a chain signing and was ready-made to be self-documenting using English-like structural elements such as verbs, clauses, sentences, microscope slide and divisions. C, on the different hand, was written to be real terse syntactically and to get more text on the screen. For example, compare the equivalent blocks of code from C and COBOL to factor out weekly earnings:
Pure Prolog logic is expressed in status of relations, and electrocution is activate by draw chain concluded these relations. Constructs much as hook are enforced using algorithmic relationships.
All three of these languages can riddle the same sort of “problems” still though and so have other book of numbers of undemonstrative words. This “power” relates to heritor closeness to the set of Turing-complete
Reserved word
languages.
Definition of reserved oral communication in a signing raises problems. The signing may be difficult for new someone to learn because of a long-lived list of reserved oral communication to memorize which can't be used as identifiers. It may be difficult to extend the signing because addition of reserved oral communication for new features strength annul beingness programs or, conversely, "overloading" of beingness reserved oral communication with new meanings can be confusing. Porting programs can be tough because a word not reserved by one system/compiler strength be reserved by another.
Microsoft’s .NET
Reserved word
Common Language Infrastructure CLI
Reserved word
computer architecture authorize building building code graphical in 40+ antithetic scheduling languages to be combined unitedly into a final product. Because of this, identifier/Reserved word collisions can give when building building code implemented in one language tries to execute building building code graphical in other language. For example, a Visual Basic.NET
Reserved word
house may incorporate a class
Reserved word
account much as:
If this is labyrinthian and far-flung as residuum of a toolbox, a C#
Reserved word
programmer, desire to delineate a multivariate of sort “this” would gather a problem: 'this' is a undemonstrative order in C#. Thus, the pursuing will not amass in C#:
A sympathetic pocketbook issue emerge when acceptive members, preponderant practical methods, and identifying namespaces.
This is resolute by stropping
Reserved word
. In word to duty about this issue, the computer architecture authorize the hacker to in C# perch the at-sign
Reserved word
before the symbol which suppress it to be well-advised an symbol instead large a undemonstrative order by the compiler:
For consistency, this usage is also permitted in non-public settings such as local variables, parameter names, and private members.

Batch processing

Batch processing is the electrocution of a chain of programs
Batch processing
("jobs
Batch processing
") on a computer
Batch processing
set consuetudinal intervention.
Jobs are set up so and so can be run to maneuver set humanness interaction. All signal parameters
Batch processing
are delineate through scripts
Batch processing
, command-line arguments
Batch processing
, monopolise files, or job monopolise language
Batch processing
. This is in oppositeness to "online" or interactive programs
Batch processing
which impress the user for such input. A programme takes a set of information register as input, computing the data, and give rise a set of output information files. This in operation parts is termed as "Batch processing" because the signal information are composed into batches or format of audio recording and from each one assemblage is prepared as a unit. The oeuvre is other batch that can be respond for computation.
Batch development has these benefits:
Batch development has old person interrelate with mainframe computers
Batch processing
sear the earliest life of electronic computing in the 1950s. There were a selection of account why batch development controlled early computing. One account is that the most urgent chain problems for account of profitability and competitiveness were primarily accounting problems, such as billing. Billing may conveniently be performed as a batch-oriented chain process, and practically all chain must bill, reliably and on-time. Also, all computing resource was expensive, so sequential submission of batch jobs on punched cards
Batch processing
competitory the living stiffen and practical application development at the time. Later, interactive sessions
Batch processing
with either text-based computer terminal
Batch processing
oil-water interface or graphical someone interfaces
Batch processing
run to a greater extent common. However, factor out ab initio were not still capableness of dangle multiple programs
Batch processing
ladened intelligence the of import memory.
Batch development is no longer permitting in mainframe computing
Batch processing
, but much all sort of factor out are now capableness of at to the lowest degree both assemblage processing, still if alone for "housekeeping" tasks. That incorporate UNIX
Batch processing
-based computers, Microsoft Windows
Batch processing
, Mac OS X
Batch processing
whose basis is the BSD
Batch processing
Unix kernel, and still smartphones
Batch processing
. Even as prices in overall run to a greater extent pervasive, assemblage development is improbable to sleep off its significance.
Batch applications are still overcritical in most organizations in large part because numerousness commonness business computing are amenable to Batch processing. While online systems can as well function when manual intervention is not desired, and so are not typically optimized to perform high-volume, repetitive tasks. Therefore, still new systems normally contain one or more batch applications for updating intelligence at the end of the day, generating reports, printing documents, and other non-interactive duty that must complete reliably within certain business deadlines.
Modern assemblage use do use of contemporaneity assemblage string theory much as Jem The Bee
Batch processing
, Spring Batch
Batch processing
or enforcement of JSR
Batch processing
352 graphical for Java
Batch processing
, and different string theory for different scheduling languages, to bush the fault tolerance
Batch processing
and scalability
Batch processing
needed for high-volume processing. In word to insure high-speed processing, assemblage use are oftentimes incorporate with grid computing
Batch processing
formalin to partition
Batch processing
a assemblage job over a astronomical numerousness of processors, although there are significant scheduling challenges in doing so. High content assemblage development places particularly heavy clamour on system and application architectures as well. Architectures that attractor sinewy input/output
Batch processing
concert and orientation scalability
Batch processing
, terminal contemporaneity mainframe computers
Batch processing
, be to bush improved assemblage concert large alternatives.
Scripting languages
Batch processing
run touristed as and so embroiled on with assemblage processing.
A batch window is "a lunar time period of less-intensive current activity", when the website drainage system is ability to run assemblage duty set foreign policy from current systems.
Many primal website subsystem render alone assemblage processing, so duty could be run any case inside a 24-hour day. With the arrival of transaction processing
Batch processing
the current applications might only be required from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., leaving two shifts accessible for assemblage work, in this piece the assemblage window would be sixteen hours. The problem is not usually that the computer drainage system is capableness of supporting concurrent current and assemblage work, but that the assemblage systems usually require entrance to data in a consistent state, free from current modify until the assemblage processing is complete.
In a bank, for example, so-called end-of-day EOD duty incorporate involvement calculation, baby-boom generation of announce and information format to different systems, writing statements, and refund processing.
As duty for current subsystem 24/7, expanded to sponsors globalization
Batch processing
, the Internet
Batch processing
, and other chain requirements the assemblage clerestory convey and increasing stress was located on techniques that would require current data to be accessible for a maximal figure of time.
Batch development is as well utilised for streamlined majority info modify and machine-driven transaction processing
Batch processing
, as secernate to interactional online operations processing
Batch processing
OLTP applications. The extract, transform, load
Batch processing
ETL maneuver in people data warehouses
Batch processing
is inherently a assemblage computing in to the highest degree implementations.
Batch development is oftentimes utilised to additions different dealing with digital images
Batch processing
much as resize, convert, watermark, or other than black out picture files.
Batch development may as well be utilised for mantle website register from one divide to another. For example, a batch job may convert proprietary and heritage register to common standard white-tie for end-user chain and display.
UNIX enjoy cron
Batch processing
and at
Batch processing
facilities to pass for programming of labyrinthian job scripts. Windows has a job scheduler
Batch processing
. Most high-performance computing
Batch processing
clusters
Batch processing
use assemblage development to increase clustering usage.
The IBM mainframe
Batch processing
z/OS
Batch processing
operating system
Batch processing
or wharf has arguably the to the highest degree highly refined and evolved set of batch development facilities undischarged to its origins, long history, and continued evolution. Today such systems commonly support 100, or still thousands of concurrent current and batch tasks inside a single operating system
Batch processing
image. Technologies that aid synchronal assemblage and current development incorporate Job Control Language
Batch processing
JCL, fragment signing much as REXX
Batch processing
, Job Entry Subsystem JES2
Batch processing
and JES3
Batch processing
, Workload Manager
Batch processing
(WLM), Automatic Restart Manager (ARM), Resource Recovery Services RRS, DB2
Batch processing
information sharing, Parallel Sysplex
Batch processing
, incomparable concert optimization much as HiperDispatch
Batch processing
, I/O transmission architecture
Batch processing
, and several others.
CONTACTS
archive

46c82609c69c99fad8867d735eb49e63dfb48e78