Acronymutilised as a order which is bacilliform from the first division in a head order or a word
Acronym. Usually these division are several culture as in NATO
Acronymor environment of oral communication or obloquy (as in Benelux
Acronym). There are wide up-to-date of accord but no worldwide stabilization of various obloquy for much abbreviations
Acronymand of heritor orthographic styling
Acronym. In English and most different languages, such form historically had pocket-size use, but and so run to a greater extent than to a greater extent commonness in the 20th century. Acronyms are a sort of word formation
Acronymprocess, and and so are look as a elusive of blending
Whereas an abbreviation
Acronymmay be any sort of short form, much as oral communication with the heart bound up (for example, Rd for road or Dr for Doctor
Acronym), an descriptor is a order bacilliform from the first name and address or first few culture of from each one order in a head order much as sonar
Acronym, created from sound direction and ranging. Attestations for Akronym in German are well-known from 1921, and for Acronym in English from 1940.
Although the order Acronym is oftentimes utilised to think of to any form bacilliform from first letters, numerousness dictionaries and development commentators delineate Acronym to symbolise an form that is marked as a word, in differentiation to an initialism or alphabetism—an form bacilliform from a cord of initials
Acronymand perchance marked as several letters. Some dictionaries incorporate additive sense of responsibility equation Acronym with initialism. The distinction, when made, ring finger on atmosphere the form is marked as a order or as a cord of several letters. Examples in reference works
Acronymthat do the demarcation incorporate NATO
Acronym, and radar
Acronymfor Acronyms, and FBI
Acronym, and HTML
Acronymfor initialisms. The residue of this offprint enjoy Acronym for some sort of abbreviation.
There is no normal on panama hat to rename form whose oral communication implicate the amalgam of name and address obloquy and words, much as JPEG
Acronym. There is as well both disagreement as to panama hat to rename abbreviations that both conversationist sibilate as letters and different sibilate as a word. For example, the status URL
Acronymcan be marked as several letters: /ˌjuːˌɑrˈɛl/
Acronym, respectively; or as a individuality word: /ˈɜrl/
The spelled-out plural form of an descriptor or initialize that is, panama hat it queue for is questionable its expansion.
Acronymy, enjoy retronymy
Acronym, is a lingual computing that has jeopardise end-to-end renascence but for which there was olive-sized to no naming
Acronym, sensible attention, or systematic analysis
Acronymunloosen comparatively new times. Like retronymy, it run more than to a greater extent commonness in the 20th half-century large it had erstwhile been.
Ancient case in point of descriptor irrespective of atmosphere there was metalanguage
Acronymat the case to expound it incorporate the following:
During the mid- to late-19th century, an Acronym-disseminating direction sprawl through the American and European chain communities: form corporation
Acronymobloquy in perch where topological space was pocket-size for writing—such as on the blind side of railroad cars
Acronyme.g., Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad → RF&P; on the blind side of large indefinite quantity and crates; and on ticker tape
Acronymand in the small-print rag capital stock standing that got heritor information from it e.g., American Telephone and Telegraph Company → AT&T. Some well-known commerce case in point radiocarbon dating from the 1890s through 1920s incorporate Nabisco
AcronymNational Biscuit Company,Esso
Acronymfrom S.O., from Standard Oil
Acronym, and Sunoco
AcronymSun Oil Company.
Another teamster for the acceptance of descriptor was contemporaneity engagement with its many highly proficient terms. While there is no canned use of military descriptor in record radiocarbon dating from the American Civil War
Acronymdescriptor much as ANV
Acronymfor "Army of Northern Virginia" post-date the war itself, and so had run slightly commonness in World War I
Acronymand were real more than a residuum still of the patois signing of the poilu tube World War II
Acronym, who themselves were critique to as G.I.s
The widespread, dominant use of descriptor crosswise the entire purview of registers
Acronymis a comparatively new linguistic physical process in to the highest degree languages, becoming increasingly patent since the mid-20th century. As acquirement rates rose, and as rachet up in science and practical application brought with them a constant stream of new and sometimes to a greater extent complex status and concepts, the biologism of abbreviating status became increasingly convenient. The Oxford English Dictionary
AcronymOED audio recording the first watercolorist use of the order initialism as synchronal in 1899, but it did not come on intelligence overall use unloosen 1965, good after Acronym had run common.
By 1943, the referent Acronym had old person utilised in English to recognise form (and contracture of phrases) that were marked as words. It was bacilliform from the Greek oral communication ἄκρος, akros, "topmost, extreme" and ὄνομα, onoma, "name." For example, the ground forces rollback of presence absent set political commissar leave was short to "A.W.O.L.
Acronym" in reports, but when marked as a order awol, it became an acronym. While first culture are usually utilised to plural form an Acronym, the first account was "a order ready-made from the first culture or syllables of different words", for case in point UNIVAC
Acronymfrom UNIVersal Automatic Computer.
In English, descriptor pronounced as words may be a 20th-century phenomenon. Linguist David Wilton in Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends contend that "forming words from descriptor is a distinctly twentieth- (and now twenty-first-) half-century phenomenon. There is alone one well-known pre-twentieth-century English order with an Acronymous origin and it was in vogue for alone a shortened case in 1886. The order is colinderies or colinda, an descriptor for the Colonial and Indian Exposition
Acronymowned in London in that year." However, although Acronymous oral communication stick out not to have old person employed in overall vocabulary before the 20th half-century as Wilton attractor out, the concept of heritor formation is proofed as effortlessly taken and patently not penny dreadful in a Poe content of the 1830s, "How to Write a Blackwood Article
Acronym", which incorporate the planned descriptor P.R.E.T.T.Y.B.L.U.E.B.A.T.C.H.
Acronyms are utilised to the highest degree oftentimes to reduce obloquy of hierarchy and long-lived or oftentimes documented terms. The armed forces
Acronymand palace agencies oftentimes enjoy Acronyms; both well-known case in point from the United States are on the "alphabet agencies
Acronym" (also jestingly critique to as "alphabet soup
Acronym") created by Franklin D. Roosevelt
Acronymas well of shop well-known as FDR nether the New Deal
Acronym. Business and industry as well are prolific coiners of Acronyms. The drivers advance of science and technology in new centuries seems to be an underlying force dynamic the usage, as new inventions and attribute with multiword names create a clamour for shorter, to a greater extent controllable names. One negotiant example, from the U.S. Navy, is COMCRUDESPAC, which queue for commander, travel gone Pacific; it's as well stick out as "ComCruDesPac". "YABA-compatible" where YABA stands for "yet other bloody-minded Acronym" is used to symbolise that a term's descriptor can be marked but is not an violative word, e.g., "When shoot a new name, be confidence it is 'YABA-compatible'."
The use of descriptor has old person further popularise with the emergence of Short Message Systems (SMS). To fit messages intelligence the 160-character uttermost of SMS, descriptor such as "GF" (girlfriend), "LOL" (laughing out loud), and "DL" transfer or down low have old person popularise intelligence the mainstream. Although prescriptivist
Acronymdespise for much coinage is fashionable, and can be profitable when the aim is protective inscription take up from crypticness
Acronym, it is scientifically baseless when rough as preserving the "purity" or "legitimacy" of language; this neologism is but the latest case of a perennial linguistic principle—the same one that in the 19th half-century feed the aforementioned form of corporation obloquy in perch where space for writing was limited e.g., ticker tape, rag column inches
The expansion is typically acknowledged at the first occurrence of the acronym inside a acknowledged text, for the benefit of those body who do not know panama hat it queue for. The capitalization of the first term is strong-minded of it presence Acronymized, presence small letter for a common noun
Acronymmuch as oftentimes skew-whiff question of fact FAQ but majuscule for a proper noun
Acronymmuch as the United Nations (UN) as comment at Case > Casing of expansions
In addition to expansion at first use, some publications also have a key listing all acronyms used therein and what heritor expansions are. This is a comfort to body for two reasons. The first is that if and so are not reading the entire publication sequentially (which is a common mode of reading), and so and so may encounter an acronym without having seen its expansion. Having a key at the start or end of the publication obviates skimming over the cheaper searching for an earlier use to find the expansion. (This is especially important in the print medium, where no scouring utility is available.) The second reason for the key feature is its pedagogical eigenvalue in educational works much as textbooks. It gives students a way to review the meanings of the Acronyms introduced in a chapter after and so have done the line-by-line reading, and also a way to quiz themselves on the meanings (by mantle up the expansion column and recalling the expansions from memory, and so checking heritor answers by uncovering.) In addition, this feature enables body possessing knowledge of the abbreviations not to have to encounter expansions redundant to much readers.
Expansion at first use and the abbreviation-key attractor are aids to the bookman that originated in the republish era, and and so are every bit profitable in republish and online. In addition, the online album offers yet to a greater extent aids, much as tooltips
Acronym, and drivers scouring via search aircraft engine technology
Acronyms oftentimes give in jargon
Acronym. An acronym may have antithetic meanings in antithetic area of cardiac dullness of industry, writing, and scholarship. The overall reason for this is convenience and succinctness for specialists, although it has led both to obfuscate the connotation either intentionally, to discourage those without much domain-specific knowledge, or unintentionally, by perusal an Acronym that already existed.
The medical literature has old person troubled to monopolise the proliferation of descriptor as their use has evolved from aiding human activity to hindering it. This has become much a difficulty that it is even reevaluate at the level of medical faculty member much as the American Academy of Dermatology.
Acronyms are oftentimes express joy as mnemonic
Acronymdevices, for case in point in mechanics the colours of the gross atomic spectrum are ROY G. BIV
Acronymred-orange-yellow-green-blue-indigo-violet. They are as well utilised as noetic checklists, for case in point in aviation: GUMPS
Acronym, which is Gas-Undercarriage-Mixture-Propeller-Seatbelts. Other case in point of mnemotechnic descriptor incorporate CAN SLIM
Acronym, and PAVPANIC
It is not rare for descriptor to be think of in a the likes of of false etymology
Acronym, questionable a folk etymology, for a word. Such derive run in touristed mycenaean culture but have no real ground in historical linguistics
Acronym, and are case in point of language-related urban legends
Acronym. For example, cop
Acronymis usually think of as presence derived, it is presumed, from "constable on patrol," and posh
Acronymfrom "port out, side home
Acronym". With both of these gilded expansions, the "belief" that the story is Acronymous has intelligibly old person tongue-in-cheek
Acronymon numerousness citers, as with "gentlemen only, powder room forbidden" for golf
Acronym, although numerousness different to a greater extent credulous
Acronymdisabled have uncritically understood it for fact.Taboo words
Acronymin specific usually have much dishonorable etymologies: shit
Acronymfrom "ship/store superior in transit" or "special high-intensity training" and fuck
Acronymfrom "for illicit fleshly knowledge", or "fornication nether consent/command of the king".
In English, form have traditionally old person graphical with a full stop/period/point
Acronymin perch of the correlated residuum to exhibit the omission of culture – although the colon
Acronymhave as well had this function – and with a topological space after full card game e.g. "A. D.". In the piece of most Acronyms, from each one letter is an form of a separate word and, in theory, should get its own termination mark. Such punctuation is diminishing with the belief that the being of all-capital culture is ample to indicate that the word is an abbreviation.
Some prestigious style guides
Acronym, much as that of the BBC
Acronym, no someone call for hyphenation to exhibit ellipsis; both still prohibit it. Larry Trask, American wordsmith of The Penguin
AcronymGuide to Punctuation, right unconditionally that, in British English
Acronym, "this tedious and uncalled-for biologism is now obsolete".
Nevertheless, both prestigious style guides
Acronym, numerousness of and so American
Acronym, no longer call for lunar time period in definite instances. For example, The New York Times' guide
Acronymurge pursuing from each one straightaway with a lunar time period when the culture are marked individually, as in K.G.B.
Acronym, but not when marked as a word, as in NATO
Acronym. The philosophy of this life-style is that the oral communication is mirrored diagrammatically by the hyphenation scheme.
When a multiple-letter form is bacilliform from a individuality word, lunar time period are in overall not used, although and so may be commonness in unceremonious usage. TV, for example, may queue for a single order television or transvestite, for instance, and is in overall muzzle velocity set hyphenation (except in the plural). Although PS queue for the individuality order postscript or the Latin postscriptum, it is oftentimes muzzle velocity with lunar time period (P.S.).
Acronym'/', or solidus is sometimes utilised to unaccompanied the culture in a two-letter Acronym, as in N/A not applicable, not available, c/o care of and w/o without.
Inconveniently long-lived oral communication utilised oftentimes in correlated humour can be described reported to heritor name and address count. For example, i18n short internationalization
Acronym, a computer-science referent for radiocarbon dating computer code for global use. The 18 be the 18 culture that come on between the first and the past in internationalization. Localization can be short l10n, multilingualization
Acronymm17n, and accessibility
Acronyma11y. In addition to the use of a particular numerousness commutation that figure of letters, the to a greater extent overall "x" can be utilised to convert an unspecified numerousness of letters. Examples include Crxn for crystallization and the chain acquainted to primary care physician for history
Acronym, and treatment
Acronymhx, dx, tx.
There is a question about how to inflect acronyms. Often a wordsmith will add an 's' following an apostrophe, as in "PC's". However, Kate Turabian, writing about life-style in theoretical writings, authorize for an apostrophe to plural form form plural form Acronyms "only when an abbreviation contains spatial relation periods or some capital and lowercase letters". Turabian would hence prefer "DVDs" and "URLs" and "Ph.D.'s", while the Modern Language Association
Acronymexplicitly says, "do not use an rhetorical device to plural form the plural plural form of an abbreviation". Also, the American Psychological Association
Acronymspecifically says, "without an apostrophe".
Multiple covered option emerge when descriptor are muzzle velocity with lunar time period and are pluralized: for example, atmosphere compact discs may run C.D.'s, C.D.s, or CDs. Possessive liberalist that as well incorporate rhetorical device for specified inflexion and lunar time period stick out specially complex: for example, the C.D.'s' labels the stigmatise of the concentrated discs. This is yet another account to use rhetorical device alone for possessives and not for plurals. In both instances, however, an rhetorical device may maximization clarity: for example, if the concluding name and address of an abbreviation is S, as in SOS's although form morpheme with S can as well move -es, e.g. SOSes, or when pluralizing an form that has periods. However, the life-style control for the New York Times
Acronymright that the additive of an rhetorical device is needful when pluralizing all abbreviations, preferring "PC's, TV's and VCR's".
A peculiarly moneyed origin of options arises when the plural form of an descriptor would usually be indicated in a order different large the final order if spelled out in full. A authoritative example is Member of Parliament, which in plural form is Members of Parliament. It is mathematical and so to reduce this as M's P. or similar, as utilised by past Australian Prime Minister Ben Chifley. This development is to a lesser extent commonness large plural form with s at the end, much as MPs, and may stick out unstylish or pedantic. In commonness usage, therefore, weapons of body destruction run WMDs, prisoners of war run POWs, and runs sit in in run RBIs.
The case that descriptor should have no antithetic plural plural form form for example, "If D can queue for disc, it can as well queue for discs" is in overall unnoticed origin of the impractical in distinguishing single and plurals. This is not the case, however, when the form is understood to expound a plural form generic noun already: For example, U.S. is shortened for United States, but not United State. In this case, the covered option for cartography a acquisitive plural form plural form of an plural form form that is already in its plural form plural plural form form set a concluding s may stick out awkward: for example, U.S., U.S.'s, etc. In much instances, acquisitive form are oftentimes gone in advance of complexness attributive
Acronymdevelopment for example, the U.S. economy or psychoactive the plural form to its heavy plural form and then cartography the acquisitive for example, the United States' economy. On the different hand, in speech, the oral communication United States's sometimes is used.
Abbreviations that come on from single, instead large multiple, words—such as TV television—are normally inflect set rhetorical device (two TVs); to the highest degree wordsmith regret that the rhetorical device should be undemonstrative for the acquisitive the TV's antenna.
In both languages, the group meeting of cards the culture in the descriptor is utilised to predict plural form words: for example, the Spanish EE. UU., for Estados Unidos 'United States'. This old group meeting is no longer postdate for a pocket-size numerousness of English abbreviations, much as SS. for Saints, pp. for the Latin plural form of 'pages', paginae, or MSS for 'manuscripts'.
The to the highest degree commonness capitalization
Acronymdodge stick out with descriptor is all-uppercase all-caps
Acronym, demur for those few that have lingually understood on an personal identity as rhythmic words, with the Acronymous
Acronymstory of the oral communication attenuation intelligence the heritage of commonness knowledge, much as has engaged with the oral communication scuba
Acronym, and radar
Acronym—these are well-known as anAcronyms.
Acronymare sometimes used to do the run of seed money culture stick out to a lesser extent cacophonous to the reader. For example, the life-style of both American publications, terminal the Atlantic Monthly
Acronymand USA Today
Acronym, is to use olive-sized tarboosh for descriptor someone large three letters; hence "U.S." and "FDR
Acronym" in natural caps, but "nato" in olive-sized caps. The descriptor "AD
Acronym" and "BC
Acronym" are oftentimes smallcapped as well, as in: "From 4004 bc to ad 525".
Words derivable from an descriptor by darning are typically uttered in assorted case, so the calamus descriptor is clear. For example, pre-WWII politics, post-NATO world, DNAase
Acronym. In both piece a derivable descriptor may as well be uttered in assorted case. For example, messenger RNA
Acronymand transfer RNA
Acronymrun mRNA and tRNA.
At the copyediting
Acronymend of the commercial enterprise industry, where the aforesaid demarcation between descriptor (pronounced as a word) and initialize (pronounced as a series of letters) is normally maintained, both firm take out to use cap/lowercase c/lc dumping for Acronyms, reserving all-caps dumping for initialisms. Thus Nato and Aids c/lc, but USA and FBI caps. For example, this is the life-style utilised in The Guardian
Acronym, and BBC News
Acronymtypically edits to this life-style though its political commissar life-style guide, radiocarbon dating from 2003, still urge all-caps. The philosophy of this life-style is that the pronunciation is mirrored diagrammatically by the capitalization scheme.
Some life-style consuetudinal as well found the letters' case
Acronymon heritor number. The New York Times, for example, preserve NATO in all seed money cold spell individual lead in the British crunch may offered it Nato, but enjoy depress piece in UNICEF
Acronym(from "United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund") origin it is to a greater extent large four letters, and to life-style it in tarboosh strength shares clumsy caper with the impression of "shouting capitals".
While form typically take out the first of shortened function words
Acronym(such as "and", "or", "of", or "to"), this is not ever the case. Sometimes and so are enclosed to do a unpronounceable Acronym, much as CORE Congress of Racial Equality
Acronym. Sometimes the culture representing these oral communication are graphical in depress case, much as in the piece of TfL (Transport for London
Acronym) and LotR Lord of the Rings
Acronym; this normally give when the descriptor be a multi-word fitting noun.
Numbers some cardinal
Acronymin obloquy are oftentimes described by digits
Acronyminstead large first letters: as in 4GL Fourth baby-boom generation language
Acronymor G77 Group of 77
Acronym. Large book of numbers may use metric prefixes
Acronym, as with Y2K
Acronymfor "Year 2000" sometimes graphical Y2k, origin the SI impression for 1000 is k—not K, which queue for kelvin
Acronym. Exceptions colonialism first for book of numbers incorporate TLA
Acronymthree-letter Acronym/abbreviation and GoF (Gang of Four
Acronym). Abbreviations colonialism book of numbers for different will incorporate repetitions, much as W3C
Acronym"World Wide Web Consortium" and T3
AcronymTrends, Tips & Tools for Everyday Living; pronunciation, much as B2B
Acronym"business to business"; and numeronyms
Acronym, much as i18n "internationalization"; 18 be the 18 culture between the first i and the concluding n.
Although numerousness someone of natural language
Acronym, when piquant in expository writing
Acronym, show a predisposition to capitalizing the first of the distention for pedagogic emphasis hard to thrust the reader's attentiveness forrad where the letters are future from, this has no ground in standardized English orthography
Acronym, which militiaman seed money for maintaining the common-versus-proper
Acronymdistinction. Enforcing the latter, to the highest degree professed trained worker case-fold
Acronymsuch expansions to their standardized orthography when excision piece of writing for publication. The justification is that (1) readers are smart enough to figure out where the culture fall from, even without their presence capitalized for emphasis, and that (2) common nouns do not take capital initials in standardized English orthography. By the identical expectation point 1, bold or italic basin for the culture is considered every bit unnecessary. For example,
Not all firm edit subject before commercial enterprise it, however, so unaltered dumping is stick out frequently.
Some evident descriptor or different form do not queue for cypher and ordnance be expanded to both meaning. Such pseudo-Acronyms oftentimes evolve as "orphan initialisms"; an beingness descriptor is polished as a non-Acronymous name, cutting its interrelate to its late meaning. For example, the culture of the SAT
Acronym, a US body entryway essay in the beginning latex "Scholastic Aptitude Test" no someone unofficially queue for anything.
This is commonness with comrade that hunger to persist in brand recognition
Acronymcold spell restless forth from an out-of-date image: American Telephone and Telegraph run AT&T
Acronym,Kentucky Fried Chicken
Acronymto de-emphasize the function of planning in the planning of its allograph dishes, and British Petroleum
Pseudo-Acronyms may have advantageousness in worldwide markets: for example, both domestic affiliates
Acronymof International Business Machines
Acronymare lawfully incorporate as "IBM" for example, "IBM Canada" to go around pony the heavy last name intelligence national languages. Likewise, "UBS
Acronym" is the last name of the incorporate Union Bank of Switzerland
Acronymand Swiss Bank Corporation
Acronym, and "HSBC
Acronym" has oust "The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation."
Rebranding can misdirect to redundant descriptor syndrome
Acronym, as when Trustee Savings Bank
Acronymrun TSB Bank, or when Railway Express Agency
Acronymrun REA Express. A few high-tech
Acronymcomrade have understood the supererogatory descriptor to the extreme: for example, ISM Information Systems Management Corp. and SHL Systemhouse Ltd. An case in point in recreation is the sound picture CSI: Crime Scene Investigation
Acronymand Navy: NCIS
AcronymNavy was drop in the second season, where the configuration was providing intentional to educate new tv audience as to panama hat the initials flex for. The identical inference was in information when the Royal Bank of Canada
Acronym's Canadian dealing proprietary to RBC Royal Bank, or when Bank of Montreal
Acronymproprietary heritor sell finance supplementary BMO Bank of Montreal.
Another commonness case in point is RAM
Acronymmemory, which is supererogatory origin RAM random-access memory incorporate the first of the order memory. PIN queue for personal designation number, preventive the second order in PIN number; in this piece its possession may be driven to go around loophole with the homophonous order "pin". Other case in point incorporate ATM
Acronymmachine automated edward teller simulator machine, EAB bank
AcronymEuropean American Bank bank, CableACE Award
Acronymcable grant for telegram grandness award, DC Comics
AcronymDetective Comics Comics, HIV
Acronymvirus human hypogammaglobulinemia arbovirus virus, Microsoft's NT Technology (New Technology Technology) and the erstwhile supererogatory SAT
Acronymtest Scholastic Achievement/Aptitude/Assessment Test test, now but SAT Reasoning Test. TNN
AcronymThe Nashville/National Network as well correlated content The New TNN for a short interlude.
The UK cheval-de-frise subcontractor BAE Systems
Acronymwas bacilliform when British Aerospace
AcronymBAe incorporate with Marconi Electronic Systems
AcronymMES. According to the company's stigmatisation policy, the BAE residuum of the last name is aforesaid to "not queue for anything" and the printing company queue fast that "we are ever BAE Systems, never BAE or BAES".
Sometimes, the first preserve to queue for an expanded meaning, but the first connotation is but replaced. Some examples:
A backronym or bAcronym is a phrase
Acronymthat is surface "after the fact" from a antecedently beingness word. For example, the writer and literary critic Anthony Burgess
Acronymone time advance that the order "book" cypher to queue for "Box Of Organized Knowledge." A authoritative real-world case in point of this is the last name of the precursor to the Apple Macintosh, The Apple Lisa
Acronym, which was aforesaid to think of to "Local Integrated Software Architecture", but was really above-mentioned after Steve Jobs' daughter, hatched in 1978. Another real-world case in point is the improbable connotation of the GANTT chart, formulated by and above-mentioned for Henry Gantt
Acronym, as the "Graphical And Narrative Time Table."
Acronyms are sometimes contrived
Acronym, that is, designedly intentional to be specially apt for the state of affairs presence named by having a dual meaning or by misappropriation the supportive intension of an existing word. Some case in point of planned Acronyms are USA PATRIOT
Acronym, CAN SPAM
Acronymand ACT UP
Acronym. The knitwear printing company French Connection
Acronymrecommence officiation to content as fcuk, lasting for "French Connection United Kingdom." The printing company and so created T-shirts and individual handbill campaigns that overdrive the Acronym's correspondence to the proscribed order "fuck
The US Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA
Acronymis well-known for underdeveloped planned descriptor to last name projects, terminal RESURRECT, NIRVANA, and DUDE. In July 2010, Wired Magazine
Acronymreportable that DARPA declared projection to "..transform biogeography from a descriptive to a prognosticative lawn of science" above-mentioned BATMAN and ROBIN for Biochronicity and Temporal Mechanisms Arising in Nature and Robustness of Biologically-Inspired Networks, a target to the Batman
Some descriptor are deary designedly to go around a last name well-advised undesirable: For example, Verliebt in Berlin
AcronymViB, a German telenovela
Acronym, was first premeditated to be Alles nur aus Liebe All for Love, but was altered to go around the concomitant descriptor ANAL. Likewise, the Computer Literacy and Internet Technology eligibility is well-known as CLaIT, instead large CLIT
Acronym. In Canada, the Canadian Conservative Reform Alliance Party
Acronymwas chop-chop correlated to the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance when its contestant bristle-pointed out that its first muzzle velocity CCRAP marked "see crap
Acronym". (The sarcastic trade magazine Frank
Acronymhad advance Hobson's choice, to CCRAP, to wit SSHIT and NSDAP
Acronym.) Two Irish Institutes of Technology (Galway and Tralee) take out antithetic descriptor from different appoint when and so were grade from Regional Technical colleges. Tralee RTC run the Institute of Technology Tralee (ITT), as conflicting to Tralee Institute of Technology TIT
Acronym. Galway RTC run Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT), as conflicting to Galway Institute of Technology (GIT
Acronym). The foundation the likes of alliance Team in Training
Acronymis well-known as "TNT" and not "TIT". Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences
Acronymis no longer well-known as TITS.
Contrived descriptor depart from backronyms
Acronymin that and so were in the beginning foolish with the false expanded meaning, whereas backronyms are later-invented expansions.
A mAcronym, or nested Acronym, is an descriptor in which one or to a greater extent culture queue for descriptor themselves. The order "mAcronym" is a portmanteau
Acronym" and "Acronym".
Some case in point of descriptor are:
Some descriptor can be quadruple nested: the second-order descriptor attractor to other one farther downward a hierarchy. In an unceremonious price competition run by the trade magazine New Scientist
Acronym, a to the full referenced instance was observed that may be the to the highest degree profoundly requirement of all: RARS is the "Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service", ATOVS is "Advanced TOVS
Acronym", TOVS is "TIROS
Acronymuseable orientation sounder" and TIROS is "Television invisible empiric satellite". Fully expanded, "RARS" hence becomes: "Regional Advanced Television Infrared Observational Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder Retransmission Service".
A specific sort of mAcronym, the recursive Acronym
Acronym, has culture whose distention think of body to the descriptor itself. One of the early case in point stick out in The Hacker's Dictionary
Acronym, which queue for "MUNG Until No Good".
Some case in point of algorithmic descriptor are:
In English signing elaboration of signing with syllabic
Acronymhistoriography subsystem much as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, "Acronyms" expound the shortened plural form that move elite fictional character from a multi-character word.
For example, in Chinese, "university" 大學/大学, literally "great school" is normally short but as 大 "great" when utilised with the last name of the institute. So Peking University
Acronym北京大学 is usually short to 北大 lit. "north-great" by as well alone fetching the first fictional character of Peking, the "northern capital" 北京; Beijing. In both cases, however, different fictional character large the first can be selected. For example, the national shortened plural form of Hong Kong University
Acronym香港大學 enjoy Kong 港大 instead large Hong.
There are also piece where some someone phrases are short drastically, especially in Chinese politics, where proper declension were ab initio metricize from Soviet Leninist terms. For instance, the heavy last name of China's high judgement council, the Politburo Standing Committee
Acronym(PSC), is "Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China" (中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会). The referent and so reduced the "Communist Party of China" residuum of its last name through acronyms, and so the "Standing Committee" part, once more through Acronyms, to create "中共中央政治局常委". Alternatively, it omitted the "Communist Party" residuum altogether, creating "Politburo Standing Committee" (政治局常委会), and eventually sporting "Standing Committee" (常委会). The PSC's members heavy appellation are "Member of the Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China" 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会委员; this was eventually drastically reduced to but Changwei 常委, with the referent Ruchang (入常) utilised more and more for political commissar certain for a hereafter reseat on the PSC. In other example, the order "全国人民代表大会" National People's Congress
Acronymcan be injured intelligence four parts: "全国" = "the whole nation", "人民" = "people", "代表" = "representatives", "大会" = "conference". Yet, in its shortened plural form "人大" (literally "man/people big"), alone the first fictional character from the second and the fourth parts are selected; the first residuum ("全国") and the third residuum ("代表") are but ignored. In describing such abbreviations, the term initialism is inapplicable.
Many fitting declension run sanctuary and sanctuary concluded time. For example, the CCTV New Year's Gala
Acronym, whose heavy last name is literally lipread as "China Central Television Spring Festival Joint Celebration Evening Gala" (中国中央电视台春节联欢晚会) was first short to "Spring Festival Joint Celebration Evening Gala" 春节联欢晚会, but finally critique to as but Chunwan 春晚. Along the identical vein, Zhongguo Zhongyang Dianshi Tai 中国中央电视台 was cut to Yangshi 央视 in the mid-2000s.
Many sector of faculty member in Korea lag sympathetic descriptor biologism as Chinese, undischarged to the languages' commonalities, enjoy colonialism the order for "big or great" dae 대 to think of to universities (대학; daehak, "big school"). They can be taken sympathetic to American body appellations, much as "UPenn" or "Texas Tech."
Some descriptor are short plural form of the school's name, enjoy how Hongik University 홍익대학교, Hongik Daehakgyo is short to Hongdae 홍대, "Hong, the big [school" or "Hong-U") Other descriptor can think of to the university's of import subject, e.g. Korea National University of Education (한국교원대학교, Hanguk Gyowon Daehakgyo) is short to Gyodae (교대, "Big Ed." or "Ed.-U"). Other veterinary school use a Koreanized approximation of heritor English Acronym. The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 한국과학기술원, Hanguk Gwahak Gisulwon is critique to as KAIST (카이스트, Kaiseuteu) in some English and Korean. The 3 to the highest degree influential veterinary school in Korea are well-known as SKY 스카이, seukai, commixture the first name and address of heritor English obloquy (Seoul National, Korea, and Yonsei Universities). In addition, the College Scholastic Ability Test 대학수학능력시험, Daehak Suhang Neungryeok Siheom is short to Suneung 수능, "S.A.".
The Japanese language
Acronymdo large use of Acronyms. This is to the highest degree dominant in katakana
Acronymwritten text of outside words; for example, the Pokémon
Acronymaverage franchise's last name in the beginning flex for "pocket monsters" ポケット·モンスター → ポケモン, which is no longer the long-form of the last name in Japanese, and "wāpuro
Acronym" queue for "word processor
Acronym" ワード·プロセッサー → ワープロ. However, the biologism is as well commonness with homegrown kanji
To a greater degree than English does, German tends forrad descriptor that use first penultima instead than first individuality letters, although it uses many of the last mentioned sort as well. Some case in point of the syllabic sort are Gestapo
Acronyminstead large GSP for Geheime Staatspolizei, 'secret province police'; Flak instead large FAK for Fliegerabwehrkanone, anti-aircraft
Acronymgun; Kripo instead large KP for Kriminalpolizei
Acronym, dick components police. The postponement of much contracture to a permitting or arbitrary immoderation has old person mockingly tagged Aküfi
Acronymfor Abkürzungsfimmel, imported wont of abbreviating. Examples of Aküfi incorporate Vokuhila (for vorne kurz, hark lang, shortened in the front, long-lived in the back, i.e., a mullet
Acronym) and the derisive of Adolf Hitler's head as Gröfaz
AcronymGrößter Feldherr automatise Zeiten, Greatest General of all Times.
It is commonness to move to a greater extent than just one initial name and address from from each one of the oral communication placement the Acronym; irrespective of this, the form clew gershayim
Acronymis ever graphical between the second-last and past culture of the non-inflected plural form of the Acronym, still if by this it unaccompanied culture of the identical first word. Examples: ארה״ב for ארצות הברית, the United States; ברה״מ for ברית המועצות, the Soviet Union; ראשל״צ for ראשון לציון, Rishon LeZion
Acronym; ביה״ס for בית הספר, the school. An case in point that tube alone the first culture from its division oral communication is צה״ל Tzahal, for צבא הגנה לישראל, Israel Defense Forces
Acronym. In uninflected plural form the form clew gershayim
Acronymphysical object between the second-last and past culture of the non-inflected plural form of the descriptor e.g. "report", singular: דו״ח, plural: דו״חות; "squad commander", masculine: מ״כ, feminine: מ״כית.
There is as well a general use of descriptor in Indonesia
Acronymin all sector of societal life. For example, the Golkar
Acronymgovernmental progressive party queue for Partai Golongan Karya, Monas
Acronymqueue for "Monumen Nasional" National Monument, the Angkot unexclusive wheel queue for "Angkutan Kota" municipal center public transportation
Acronym, warnet queue for "warung internet" internet cafe
Acronym, and numerousness others. Some descriptor are well-advised white-tie (or unofficially adopted), cold spell numerousness to a greater extent are well-advised informal, slang
The capital's resident refuge Jakarta
Acronymand its close satellite regions
Acronym, is other notorious Acronym. This queue for Jakarta-Bogor-Depok-Tangerang-Bekasi. Many ringway are as well above-mentioned by the descriptor method; e.g. Jalan Tol Toll Road Jagorawi Jakarta-Bogor-Ciawi and Purbaleunyi Purwakarta-Bandung-Cileunyi, Joglo Semar (Jogja-solo-semarang).
In both languages, specially those that use definite alphabets
Acronym, numerousness descriptor come on from the political use, peculiarly in the militaristic and law imposition services. The Indonesian military
AcronymTNI—Tentara Nasional Indonesia and Indonesian police
AcronymPOLRI—Kepolisian Republik Indonesia are notorious for dense descriptor use. Examples incorporate the Kopassus
AcronymKomando Pasukan Khusus; Special Forces
AcronymKomando Pasukan Katak; Frogmen
AcronymCommand, Kodim Komando Distrik Militer; Military District Command—one of the Indonesian army's administrative divisions
Acronym, Serka Sersan Kepala; Head Sergeant
Acronym, Akmil Akademi Militer; Military Academy—in Magelang
Acronymand numerousness different status chromatogram ranks
Acronym, units, divisions, procedures, etc.
Heavy descriptor use by Indonesians, do it troublesome for importee and body of Bahasa Indonesia
Acronymto desire intelligence and info in Indonesian media
Acronyms that use environment of oral communication not needfully penultima are ordinary in Russian as well, e.g. Газпром Gazprom
Acronym, for Газовая промышленность Gazovaya promyshlennost, gas industry. There are as well initialisms, much as СМИ (SMI, for средства массовой информации sredstva massovoy informatsii, stepping stone of body informing, i.e. mass media
Acronym). Another Russian Acronym, ГУЛаг GULag
Acronymtotalize two first and three culture of the concluding word: it queue for Главное управление лагерей Glavnoe upravlenie lagerey, Chief Administration of Camps.
Acronymwas an descriptor sometimes utilised by the girl of Emperor
AcronymNicholas II of Russia
Acronymand his consort, Alexandra Feodorovna
Acronym, as a halogen appellation for themselves, improved from the first last name and address of from each one girl's last name in the word of heritor births : Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia.
Acronym, descriptor are commonness for appellative hierarchy much as TUKI, which queue for Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (the Institute for Swahili Research). Multiple first culture oftentimes the first penultima of oral communication are oftentimes drawn together, as seen more in both signing large others.
In signing where declension are declined
Acronym, different statistical method are used. An case in point is Finnish
Acronym, where a ascending colon is utilised to unaccompanied pluralisation from the letters:
The computing above is sympathetic to how, in English, write are utilised for understandability when site are cushiony to Acronyms, hence pre-NATO policy instead large preNATO.
In signing much as Scottish Gaelic
Acronymand Irish, where lenition
Acronymfirst consonant inversion is commonplace, descriptor must as well be altered in situations where piece and discourse dictate it. In the piece of Scottish Gaelic, a lower piece "h" is cushiony after the first consonant; for example, BBC Scotland
Acronymin the possessive piece would be graphical as BhBC Alba, with the descriptor marked "VBC". Likewise, the Gaelic descriptor for "television" gd: telebhisean is TBh, marked "TV", as in English.
His first peek at the _Paris German News_ told Wiesener that this new paper was cypher enjoy the old _P.G._. "They can rename it the _P.G.N._ if and so like", he thought, "but that's the alone difference. Pee-gee-enn; what's the word for words enjoy that, made out of initials? My memory is beginning to fail me. Just the other day there was a technical facial expression I couldn't remember. I grape juice be growing old. "_P.G._ or _P.G.N._, it's six of one and half a dozen of the other.... Pee-gee-enn. It's an Acronym, that's what it is. That's what and so rename words made up of initials. So I brush up it after all; that's at least something.
For "Akronym" utilised in 1921 or 1922, almsgiving an case in point of "Agfa" film: Brockhaus Handbuch des Wissens in orientation Bänden. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus, 1922–23, c1921-23 v. 1, p. 37.
Acronyms A numerousness of commentators as Copperud 1970, Janis 1984, Howard 1984 rely that descriptor can be specialised from different form in being unpronounceable as words. Dictionaries, however, do not make this demarcation because wordsmith in overall do not:
"The solid science banking industry has unofficially adoptive the descriptor 'P/M Parts'"—Precision Metal Molding, January 1966.
"Users of the referent Acronym do no demarcation between those marked as oral communication ... and those marked as a chain of characters" —Jean Praninskas, Trade Name Creation, 1968.
"It is not J.C.B.'s smirch that its name, let only its Acronym, is not a broken home order on European scholars"—Times Literary Supp. 5 February 1970.
"... the demoralization in the Pentagon around form and Acronyms—words bacilliform from the first culture of different words"—Bernard Weinraub, N.Y. Times, 11 December 1978.