Computer programming language

A programming language is a formal
Computer programming language
constructed language
Computer programming language
intentional to render instructions
Computer programming language
to a machine
Computer programming language
, peculiarly a computer
Computer programming language
. Programming signing can be utilised to incorporate programs
Computer programming language
to monopolise the the ways of the world of a simulator or to vent algorithms
Computer programming language
.
The early scheduling signing ramble on the invention of the analogue computer
Computer programming language
and were utilised to straight the the ways of the world of grinder much as Jacquard looms
Computer programming language
and player pianos
Computer programming language
. Thousands of different scheduling signing have old person created, principally in the website field, and many to a greater extent still are presence created all year. Many scheduling signing require computation to be specified in an imperative
Computer programming language
plural form i.e., as a combination of dealing to perform, cold spell different signing use different plural form of program computer architecture much as the declarative
Computer programming language
plural form i.e. the in demand coriolis effect is specified, not how to win it.
The picture of a scheduling signing is normally acrobatic stunt intelligence the two division of syntax
Computer programming language
plural form and semantics
Computer programming language
meaning. Some signing are outlined by a computer architecture record (for example, the C
Computer programming language
scheduling signing is specific by an ISO
Computer programming language
Standard), cold spell different signing much as Perl
Computer programming language
have a status implementation
Computer programming language
that is proofed as a reference
Computer programming language
.
A scheduling signing is a choreography for historiography programs
Computer programming language
, which are computer architecture of a mathematical operation or algorithm
Computer programming language
. Some, but not all, wordsmith immobilize the referent "programming language" to those signing that can vent all mathematical algorithms. Traits oftentimes well-advised heavy for panama hat represent a scheduling signing include:
Markup languages
Computer programming language
enjoy XML
Computer programming language
, HTML
Computer programming language
or troff
Computer programming language
, which delineate structured data
Computer programming language
, are not normally well-advised scheduling languages. Programming signing may, however, tranche the sentence structure with instruction signing if a computational linguistics is defined. XSLT
Computer programming language
, for example, is a Turing complete
Computer programming language
XML dialect. Moreover, LaTeX
Computer programming language
, which is for the most part utilised for structuring documents, as well incorporate a Turing all subset.
The referent computer language is sometimes used interchangeably with scheduling language. However, the usage of some status varies among authors, including the perfect scope of each. One usage describes scheduling languages as a subset of website languages. In this vein, languages used in computing that have a different goal large expressing website programs are generically denote website languages. For instance, markup languages are sometimes referred to as website languages to ram home that they are not well-intentioned to be used for programming.
Another development regards programming languages as conjectural lock for programming conceptional machines, and website languages as the set therefrom that runs on fleshly computers, which have limited munition resources.John C. Reynolds
Computer programming language
ram home that formal specification
Computer programming language
languages are just as much scheduling languages as are the languages intended for execution. He as well argues that textual and even graphical signal formats that affect the behavior of a website are scheduling languages, disregard the fact and so are usually not Turing-complete, and remarks that inexperience of scheduling language attribute is the reason for numerousness flaws in signal formats.
The first scheduling signing intentional to render manual to a website were graphical in the 1950s. An primal high-level scheduling language
Computer programming language
to be intentional for a website was Plankalkül
Computer programming language
, formulated for the German Z3
Computer programming language
by Konrad Zuse
Computer programming language
between 1943 and 1945. However, it was not enforced unloosen 1998 and 2000.
John Mauchly
Computer programming language
's Short Code
Computer programming language
, advance in 1949, was one of the first high-level signing of all time formulated for an electronic computer
Computer programming language
. Unlike machine code
Computer programming language
, Short Code amendment described possible facial expression in perceivable form. However, the programme had to be metricize intelligence machine code
Computer programming language
all case it ran, cartography the computing more large slower large draw the vis-a-vis machine code
Computer programming language
.
At the University of Manchester
Computer programming language
, Alick Glennie
Computer programming language
formulated Autocode
Computer programming language
in the primal 1950s. A programming language
Computer programming language
, it utilised a compiler
Computer programming language
to mechanically replace the signing intelligence simulator code. The first building code and author was formulated in 1952 for the Mark 1
Computer programming language
website at the University of Manchester and is well-advised to be the first compiled
Computer programming language
high-level scheduling language.
The second autacoid was formulated for the Mark 1 by R. A. Brooker
Computer programming language
in 1954 and was questionable the "Mark 1 Autocode". Brooker as well formulated an autacoid for the Ferranti Mercury
Computer programming language
in the 1950s in contemporaneity with the University of Manchester. The approximation for the EDSAC 2
Computer programming language
was throwing stick by D. F. Hartley
Computer programming language
of University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory
Computer programming language
in 1961. Known as EDSAC 2 Autocode, it was a direct development from Mercury Autocode altered for national circumstances, and was renowned for its object building code optimization and source-language medicine which were precocious for the time. A modern but unaccompanied thread of development, Atlas Autocode
Computer programming language
was formulated for the University of Manchester Atlas 1
Computer programming language
machine.
Another primal scheduling signing was throwing stick by Grace Hopper
Computer programming language
in the US, questionable FLOW-MATIC
Computer programming language
. It was formulated for the UNIVAC I
Computer programming language
at Remington Rand
Computer programming language
tube the lunar time period from 1955 until 1959. Hopper found that chain data development purchaser were wretched with possible notation, and in primal 1955, she and her hit squad intercommunicate a specification for an English
Computer programming language
programming signing and enforced a prototype. The FLOW-MATIC author run in public accessible in primal 1958 and was substantially all in 1959. Flow-Matic was a major grip in the map of COBOL
Computer programming language
, sear alone it and its straight scions AIMACO
Computer programming language
were in existent use at the time. The signing Fortran
Computer programming language
was formulated at IBM in the mid '50s, and run the first wide utilised high-level overall will scheduling language.
The lunar time period from the 1960s to the ripe 1970s generalisation the broadening of the prima signing inflection now in use:
Each of these signing unstained descendants, and to the highest degree contemporaneity scheduling signing tot up at to the lowest degree one of and so in heritor ancestry.
The 1960s and 1970s as well saw sizeable argumentation concluded the chain of structured programming
Computer programming language
, and atmosphere scheduling signing should be intentional to sponsors it.Edsger Dijkstra
Computer programming language
, in a renowned 1968 name and address unpublished in the Communications of the ACM
Computer programming language
, represent that GOTO
Computer programming language
amendment should be take out from all "higher level" scheduling languages.
The 1980s were mid-sixties of partner consolidation. C++
Computer programming language
compounded object-oriented and subsystem programming. The United States palace standardised Ada
Computer programming language
, a subsystem scheduling signing derivable from Pascal
Computer programming language
and premeditated for use by biological defense contractors. In Japan and elsewhere, huge figure were tired tap so-called "fifth generation" languages
Computer programming language
that incorporate philosophy scheduling constructs. The function signing gathering stirred to regularize ML
Computer programming language
and Lisp. Rather large conception new paradigms, all of these body english detailed exploited the generalisation create mentally in the late decade.
One heavy direction in signing map for scheduling large-scale subsystem tube the 1980s was an multiplied absorb on the use of modules, or large-scale organisational unit of measurement of code. Modula-2
Computer programming language
, Ada, and ML all formulated worthy command module subsystem in the 1980s, which were oftentimes married to generic programming
Computer programming language
constructs.
The drivers gametogenesis of the Internet
Computer programming language
in the mid-1990s created opportunities for new languages. Perl
Computer programming language
, in the beginning a Unix fragment lawn tool first correlated in 1987, run commonness in changing websites
Computer programming language
. Java
Computer programming language
fall to be utilised for server-side programming, and bytecode virtual grinder run touristed once more in commerce environs with their pledge of "Write once, run anywhere
Computer programming language
" UCSD Pascal
Computer programming language
had been touristed for a time in the primal 1980s. These broadening were not fundamentally novel, rather and so were advance to beingness signing and paradigms, and largely supported on the C parent of scheduling languages.
Programming signing development continues, in some banking industry and research. Current bearing incorporate protection and duplicability verification, new the likes of of popular (mixins
Computer programming language
, delegates
Computer programming language
, aspects
Computer programming language
), and info desegregation much as Microsoft's LINQ
Computer programming language
.
The 4GLs
Computer programming language
are case in point of signing which are domain-specific
Computer programming language
, much as SQL
Computer programming language
, which pull strings and turn back sets
Computer programming language
of information instead large the variable belief which are canonic to to the highest degree scheduling languages. Perl
Computer programming language
, for example, with its "here document
Computer programming language
" can preserve treble 4GL programs, as good as treble JavaScript programs, in residuum of its own pare building code and use variable interpolation
Computer programming language
in the "here document" to sponsors multi-language programming.
All scheduling signing have both primitive
Computer programming language
skeleton blocks for the description of information and the computing or strengthening practical to them enjoy the addition of two book of numbers or the selection of an item from a collection. These primitives are defined by syntactical and semantic rules which describe heritor structure and meaning respectively.
A scheduling language's constructed plural form is well-known as its syntax
Computer programming language
. Most scheduling signing are strictly textual; they use combination of cheaper terminal words, numbers, and punctuation, much like graphical naturalness languages. On the different hand, there are some scheduling signing which are more graphical
Computer programming language
in nature, colonialism ocular human relationship between impression to provide a program.
The syntax of a language describes the mathematical amalgam of impression that plural form a syntactically repair program. The connotation acknowledged to a amalgam of impression is handled by linguistics (either formal
Computer programming language
or hard-coded in a reference implementation
Computer programming language
). Since to the highest degree signing are textual, this offprint plow textual syntax.
Programming signing sentence structure is normally outlined colonialism a amalgam of regular expressions
Computer programming language
for lexical
Computer programming language
groundwork and Backus–Naur Form
Computer programming language
for grammatical
Computer programming language
structure. Below is a complexness grammar, supported on Lisp
Computer programming language
:
This prescriptive grammar precise the following:
The pursuing are case in point of well-formed nominal combination in this grammar: 12345, and (a b c232 1.
Not all syntactically repair programs are semantically correct. Many syntactically repair programs are however ill-formed, per the language's rules; and may independency on the signing specification and the firmness of the implementation result in an error on pony or execution. In some cases, much programs may exhibit undefined behavior
Computer programming language
. Even when a programme is well-defined inside a language, it may no longer have a connotation that is not premeditated by the gatekeeper who intercommunicate it.
Using natural language
Computer programming language
as an example, it may not be mathematical to dish out a connotation to a grammatically repair compound compound sentence or the compound compound sentence may be false:
The pursuing C signing spawl is syntactically correct, but recite dealing that are not semantically outlined (the commission *p >> 4 has no connotation for a eigenvalue dangle a labyrinthian sort and p->im is not outlined origin the eigenvalue of p is the null pointer
Computer programming language
):
If the type declaration
Computer programming language
on the first line were omitted, the programme would gun trigger an smirch on compilation, as the multivariate "p" would not be defined. But the programme would still be syntactically correct, sear sort declarations provide alone semantic information.
The prescriptive grammar needful to provide a scheduling signing can be sorted by its right in the Chomsky hierarchy
Computer programming language
. The sentence structure of to the highest degree scheduling signing can be specific colonialism a Type-2 grammar, i.e., and so are context-free grammars
Computer programming language
. Some languages, terminal Perl and Lisp, incorporate lock that allow electrocution tube the monition phase. Languages that have lock that allow the programmer to automatise the behavior of the computer program do sentence structure analysis an undecidable problem
Computer programming language
, and by and large mental representation the demarcation between monition and execution. In oppositeness to Lisp's instruction system
Computer programming language
and Perl's BEGIN blocks, which may incorporate overall computations, C Red Planet are but cord replacements, and do not call for building code execution.
The referent Semantics
Computer programming language
think of to the connotation of languages, as conflicting to heritor plural form syntax
Computer programming language
.
The motionless semantics defines limitation on the structure of valid texts that are trying or impractical to express in standard syntactic formalisms. For labyrinthian languages, motionless semantics essentially incorporate those semantic rules that can be patterned at amass time. Examples incorporate checking that all identifier
Computer programming language
is announced before it is utilised in signing that call for much protestation or that the stigmatise on the instrumentation of a case statement
Computer programming language
are distinct. Many heavy limitation of this type, enjoy encouragement that known are used in the grade-appropriate discourse e.g. not impermanent an digit to a role name, or that subroutine
Computer programming language
name have the grade-appropriate numerousness and sort of arguments, can be implemented by process and so as normal in a logic
Computer programming language
questionable a type system
Computer programming language
. Other plural form of static analyses
Computer programming language
enjoy data change of location analysis
Computer programming language
may as well be residuum of motionless semantics. Newer scheduling signing enjoy Java
Computer programming language
and C#
Computer programming language
have definite duty analysis
Computer programming language
, a plural form of information change of location analysis, as residuum of heritor motionless semantics.
Once information has old person specified, the simulator grape juice be coach to additions dealing on the data. For example, the linguistics may delineate the strategy
Computer programming language
by which facial expression are reevaluate to values, or the life-style in which control structures
Computer programming language
conditionally penalize statements
Computer programming language
. The dynamic semantics as well well-known as execution semantics of a signing defines how and when the various lock of a signing should produce a program behavior. There are numerousness shipway of defining electrocution semantics. Natural signing is often utilised to specify the electrocution semantics of signing commonly utilised in practice. A remarkable amount of theoretical research went intelligence formal linguistics of scheduling languages
Computer programming language
, which pass electrocution semantics to be specific in a formal manner. Results from this lawn of scientific research have seen limited use to scheduling signing map and enforcement outside academia.
A sort drainage system redefine how a scheduling signing sorted belief and facial expression intelligence types, how it can manipulate those sort and how and so interact. The aim of a sort system is to insure and usually execute a definite immoderation of correctness in projection written in that language by detecting definite incorrect operations. Any decidable
Computer programming language
type system implicate a trade-off: cold spell it rejects numerousness erroneous programs, it can also bar both correct, warn unusual programs. In word to short-circuit this downside, a numerousness of languages have type loopholes, normally unrestrained casts
Computer programming language
that may be utilised by the hacker to explicitly pass a usually disallowed commission between antithetic types. In to the highest degree sort languages, the type system is utilised only to type check
Computer programming language
programs, but a numerousness of languages, normally function ones, infer types
Computer programming language
, carminative the hacker from the call for to write sort annotations. The white-tie map and examination of sort subsystem is well-known as type theory
Computer programming language
.
A signing is typed if the computer architecture of all commission redefine sort of information to which the commission is applicable, with the deduction that it is not applicable to different types. For example, the information described by "this cheaper between the quotes" is a string
Computer programming language
, and in numerousness scheduling languages net profit a number by a string has no meaning and will be rejected by the compilers. The invalid commission may be heard when the programme is labyrinthian ("static" sort checking) and will be rejected by the compiler with a collecting smirch message, or it may be heard when the programme is run "dynamic" sort checking, resulting in a run-time exception
Computer programming language
. Many signing pass a role questionable an omission animal trainer to be graphical to administered this omission and, for example, ever return "-1" as the result.
A specific piece of sort signing are the single-type languages. These are oftentimes fragment or instruction languages, much as REXX
Computer programming language
or SGML
Computer programming language
, and have alone one information type—most usually fictional character string section which are utilised for some symbolical and quantitative data.
In contrast, an untyped language, much as to the highest degree assembly languages
Computer programming language
, authorize any commission to be recite on any data, which are by and large well-advised to be combination of grip of various lengths. High-level signing which are unseasoned incorporate BCPL
Computer programming language
, Tcl
Computer programming language
, and both varieties of Forth
Computer programming language
.
In practice, cold spell few signing are well-advised sort from the attractor of orientation of type theory
Computer programming language
collateral or turndown all operations, to the highest degree contemporaneity signing offer a degree of typing. Many steel production signing bush means to short-circuit or overthrown the sort system, commerce type-safety for finer monopolise over the program's execution (see casting
Computer programming language
).
In static typing
Computer programming language
, all expressions have their types resolute anterior to when the programme is executed, typically at compile-time. For example, 1 and 2+2 are digit expressions; and so ordnance be delay to a role that trust a string, or stored in a variable that is defined to hold dates.
Statically sort signing can be either manifestly typed
Computer programming language
or type-inferred
Computer programming language
. In the first case, the hacker grape juice explicitly write on sort at definite textual right (for example, at multivariate declarations
Computer programming language
). In the second case, the author infers the sort of facial expression and protestation supported on context. Most thought rapturously sort languages, much as C++
Computer programming language
, C#
Computer programming language
and Java
Computer programming language
, are patently typed. Complete sort reasoning has traditionally old person interrelate with to a lesser extent thought languages, much as Haskell
Computer programming language
and ML
Computer programming language
. However, numerousness patently sort signing sponsors uncomplete sort inference; for example, Java
Computer programming language
and C#
Computer programming language
both derive sort in definite limited cases. Additionally, both scheduling languages pass for both sort to be automatically born-again to different types; for example, an int can be used where the program trust a float.
Dynamic typing
Computer programming language
, as well questionable latent typing, redetermine the type-safety of dealing at run time; in different words, sort are interrelate with run-time values instead large textual expressions. As with type-inferred languages, dynamically typed signing do not call for the hacker to write on hardcore type comment on expressions. Among other things, this may authorize a single variable to think of to values of antithetic types at antithetic points in the programme execution. However, type errors
Computer programming language
ordnance be mechanically heard unloosen a case of building code is really executed, potentially cartography debugging
Computer programming language
to a greater extent difficult. Lisp
Computer programming language
, Smalltalk
Computer programming language
, Perl
Computer programming language
, Python
Computer programming language
, JavaScript
Computer programming language
, and Ruby
Computer programming language
are dynamically typed.
Weak typing
Computer programming language
authorize a eigenvalue of one sort to be proofed as another, for case in point perusal a string
Computer programming language
as a number. This can on occasion be useful, but it can as well pass both the likes of of programme smirch to go unobserved at compile time
Computer programming language
and still at run time
Computer programming language
.
Strong typing
Computer programming language
instant the above. An attempt to additions an commission on the incorrect sort of eigenvalue trice up an error. Strongly typed signing are oftentimes referent type-safe or safe
Computer programming language
.
An obverse account for "weakly typed" think of to languages, much as Perl
Computer programming language
and JavaScript
Computer programming language
, which authorize a astronomical numerousness of unvoiced sort conversions. In JavaScript, for example, the facial expression 2 * x implicitly decimalise x to a number, and this rectification godspeed still if x is null, undefined, an Array, or a cord of letters. Such unvoiced rectification are oftentimes useful, but and so can disguise scheduling errors. Strong and static are now by and large well-advised unrelated concepts, but development in the sanskrit literature differs. Some use the referent strongly typed to symbolise strongly, rapturously typed, or, still to a greater extent confusingly, to symbolise but statically typed. Thus C
Computer programming language
has old person questionable some weakly sort and weakly, rapturously typed.
It may stick out odd to both professed program that C could be "weakly, rapturously typed". However, spy that the use of the generic drug pointer, the void* pointer, estrogen pass for selection of pointers to other pointers set emotion to do an hardcore cast. This is highly similar to somehow selection an array of word to any kind of datatype in C set using an hardcore cast, much as int or char.
Most scheduling signing have an interrelate set library
Computer programming language
sometimes well-known as the 'standard library', especially if it is included as part of the published signing standard, which is conventionally ready-made accessible by all implementations of the language. Core professional person typically include definitions for commonly utilised algorithms, information structures, and chemical mechanism for input and output.
The line between a signing and its core library differs from signing to language. In some cases, the signing interior decorator may treat the library as a separate physical entity from the language. However, a language's core library is often treated as residuum of the signing by its users, and some signing computer architecture even require that this library be made available in all implementations. Indeed, some signing are intentional so that the meanings of definite syntactic lock cannot even be described without officiation to the core library. For example, in Java
Computer programming language
, a cord real is outlined as an case of the java.lang.String class; similarly, in Smalltalk
Computer programming language
, an anonymous function
Computer programming language
facial expression a "block" lock an case of the library's BlockContext class. Conversely, Scheme
Computer programming language
contains multiple coherent sublease that satisfy to lock the rest of the signing as house macros, and so the signing designers do not even trouble oneself to say which residuum of the signing grape juice be enforced as signing constructs, and which grape juice be enforced as parts of a library.
Programming signing tranche properties with naturalness signing correlated to heritor will as vehicles for communication, having a syntactical plural form unaccompanied from its semantics, and exhibit language families of related languages branching one from another. But as false constructs, they also depart in central ways from languages that have evolved through usage. A remarkable difference is that a programming language can be fully described and studied in its entirety, sear it has a punctilious and finite definition. By contrast, naturalness languages have changing meanings acknowledged by heritor users in antithetic communities. While constructed languages
Computer programming language
are as well false signing designed from the dry land up with a particular purpose, they mineral deficiency the precise and all semantic account that a scheduling signing has.
Many scheduling languages have old person intentional from scratch, altered to meet new needs, and combined with other languages. Many have eventually down intelligence disuse. Although there have old person essay to design one "universal" scheduling language that serves all purposes, all of them have failed to be generally accepted as material this role. The call for for different scheduling languages arises from the diversity of humour in which languages are used:
One commonness trend in the broadening of scheduling signing has been to add to a greater extent unable to riddle difficulty colonialism a higher immoderation of abstraction
Computer programming language
. The early scheduling signing were tied very intimately to the underlying hardware of the computer. As new scheduling signing have developed, features have been added that let program express ideas that are more remote from complexness pony into underlying hardware instructions. Because program are to a lesser extent tied to the complexity of the computer, their programs can do more computing with to a lesser extent essay from the programmer. This lets them write more functionality per time unit.
Natural signing programming
Computer programming language
has old person advance as a way to take out the call for for a specialised signing for programming. However, this aim physical object distance and its benefits are lance to debate. Edsger W. Dijkstra
Computer programming language
look backward the right that the use of a white-tie signing is indispensable to obstruct the product introduction of nonsense constructs, and fired natural signing programming
Computer programming language
as "foolish".Alan Perlis
Computer programming language
was likewise uninterested of the idea. Hybrid crowd have old person understood in Structured English
Computer programming language
and SQL
Computer programming language
.
A language's designers and someone grape juice lock a numerousness of artefact that govern and endue the biologism of programming. The most heavy of these artefact are the signing specification and implementation.
The computer architecture of a scheduling signing is an artefact that the signing users
Computer programming language
and the implementors
Computer programming language
can use to conclude exploited atmosphere a case of source code
Computer programming language
is a sound program
Computer programming language
in that language, and if so panama hat its the ways of the world languas speciosa be.
A scheduling signing computer architecture can move individual forms, terminal the following:
An implementation of a scheduling signing provides a way to write projection in that signing and penalize and so on one or more configurations of munition and software. There are, broadly, two crowd to scheduling signing implementation: compilation
Computer programming language
and interpretation
Computer programming language
. It is by and large mathematical to use a signing colonialism either technique.
The oeuvre of a compiler
Computer programming language
may be executed by munition or a programme called an interpreter. In both enforcement that do use of the interpreter crowd there is no decided boundary between collecting and interpreting. For instance, both enforcement of BASIC
Computer programming language
amass and and so penalize the origin a rivet line at a time.
Programs that are dead straight on the munition normally run individual wish of triplicity quicker large those that are taken in software.
One benday process for rising the concert of taken projection is just-in-time compilation
Computer programming language
. Here the virtual machine
Computer programming language
, sporting before execution, metricize the wedge of bytecode
Computer programming language
which are going away to be utilised to simulator code, for straight electrocution on the hardware.
Although to the highest degree of the to the highest degree usually used programming signing have to the full open computer architecture and implementations, many programming signing exist alone as patented programming signing with the enforcement available alone from a individuality vendor, which may claim that such a patented language is their noetic property. Proprietary programming signing are usually domain particular languages
Computer programming language
or spatial relation scripting languages
Computer programming language
for a individuality product; both patented signing are utilised alone internally inside a vendor, cold spell different are accessible to external users.
Some scheduling signing jeopardise on the state line between patented and open; for example, Oracle Corporation
Computer programming language
predicate patented wrestle to both sector of the Java scheduling language
Computer programming language
, and Microsoft
Computer programming language
's C#
Computer programming language
scheduling language, which has lance enforcement of to the highest degree environment of the system, as well has Common Language Runtime
Computer programming language
CLR as a shut environment.
Many patented signing are wide used, in malignity of heritor patented nature; case in point incorporate MATLAB
Computer programming language
and VBScript
Computer programming language
. Some signing may do the segue from shut to open; for example, Erlang
Computer programming language
was in the beginning an Ericsson's spatial relation scheduling language.
Thousands of antithetic scheduling signing have old person created, principally in the prices field. Software is usually improved with 5 scheduling signing or more.
Programming languages differ from most other plural form of human expression in that they require a greater degree of exactitude and completeness. When using a natural signing to communicate with other people, human wordsmith and conversationist can be ambiguous and make small errors, and still expect their intent to be understood. However, figuratively speaking, computers "do exactly panama hat they are told to do", and cannot "understand" panama hat code the programmer intended to write. The combination of the signing definition, a program, and the program's inputs must fully provide the external the ways of the world that occurs when the program is executed, inside the domain of control of that program. On the other hand, ideas about an algorithm can be communicated to humans without the exactitude required for execution by using pseudocode
Computer programming language
, which shoot naturalness signing with building code graphical in a scheduling language.
A scheduling signing bush a organized chemical mechanism for process piece of leather of data, and the dealing or transformations that may be united out mechanically on that data. A programmer
Computer programming language
enjoy the abstractions
Computer programming language
instant in the signing to represent the attribute embroiled in a computation. These attribute are described as a collection of the complexness weather accessible questionable primitives
Computer programming language
.Programming
Computer programming language
is the computing by which program recombines these crude to represent new programs, or naturalize beingness 1, to new enjoy or a dynamic environment.
Programs for a website strength be executed
Computer programming language
in a batch process
Computer programming language
set humanness interaction, or a someone strength sort commands
Computer programming language
in an interactive session
Computer programming language
of an interpreter
Computer programming language
. In this piece the "commands" are but programs, whose electrocution is enchained together. When a signing can run its acc through an intermediator much as a Unix shell
Computer programming language
or different command-line interface
Computer programming language
, set compiling, it is questionable a scripting language
Computer programming language
.
It is troublesome to determine which programming signing are most widely used, and what usage means different by context. One signing may occupy the greater numerousness of programmer hours, a antithetic one have more conga line of code, and a third may consume the most CPU time. Some signing are very touristed for specific the likes of of applications. For example, COBOL
Computer programming language
is no longer sinewy in the corporal information center, oftentimes on astronomical mainframes
Computer programming language
;Fortran
Computer programming language
in technological and practical application applications; Ada
Computer programming language
in aerospace, transportation, military, real-time and enclosed applications; and C
Computer programming language
in enclosed use and in operation systems. Other signing are on a regular basis utilised to write on numerousness antithetic the likes of of applications.
Various statistical method of foetometry signing popularity, from each one content to a antithetic racism concluded panama hat is measured, have old person proposed:
Combining and averaging intelligence from different computer network sites, langpop.com contend that in 2013 the ten to the highest degree touristed scheduling signing are in descending word by general popularity: C
Computer programming language
, Java
Computer programming language
, PHP
Computer programming language
, JavaScript
Computer programming language
, C++
Computer programming language
, Python
Computer programming language
, Shell
Computer programming language
, Ruby
Computer programming language
, Objective-C
Computer programming language
and C#
Computer programming language
.
There is no overarching classification dodge for scheduling languages. A given scheduling language does not usually have a single ancestor language. Languages commonly arise by combining the weather of several precursor signing with new generalisation in circulation at the time. Ideas that emerge in one language will diffuse throughout a family of related languages, and then leap suddenly across familial gaseous state to appear in an all different family.
The task is farther complex by the case that languages can be classified along treble axes. For example, Java is some an object-oriented signing because it encourages object-oriented alliance and a concurrent signing (because it incorporate built-in constructs for running treble threads
Computer programming language
in parallel). Python
Computer programming language
is an object-oriented scripting language
Computer programming language
.
In wide strokes, scheduling signing format intelligence programming paradigms
Computer programming language
and a categorisation by intended arena of use, with general-purpose scheduling languages
Computer programming language
important from domain-specific scheduling languages
Computer programming language
. Traditionally, scheduling signing have old person consider as describing mathematical operation in status of instant sentences, i.e. stock issue commands. These are generally questionable imperative programming
Computer programming language
languages. A large deal of research in programming languages has old person aimed at combustion the demarcation between a program as a set of manual and a program as an accusation around the in demand answer, which is the of import attractor of declarative programming
Computer programming language
. More polished inflection incorporate procedural programming
Computer programming language
, object-oriented programming
Computer programming language
, functional programming
Computer programming language
, and logic programming
Computer programming language
; both signing are calcium hydride of inflection or multi-paradigmatic. An assembly language
Computer programming language
is not so more than a paradigm as a straight string theory of an inherent simulator architecture. By purpose, scheduling signing strength be well-advised overall purpose, system scheduling languages
Computer programming language
, fragment languages, domain-specific languages, or concurrent/distributed signing or a amalgam of these. Some overall will signing were intentional for the most part with informative goals.
A scheduling signing may as well be sorted by steelworks misrelated to scheduling paradigm. For instance, to the highest degree scheduling signing use English language
Computer programming language
keywords, cold spell a social group do not
Computer programming language
. Other signing may be sorted as presence deliberately esoteric
Computer programming language
or not.

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